Work Environment and Employee’s Commitment in Three Selected Institutions in Rivers State

Please download to get full document.

View again

All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
 4
 
  The aim of this study is to investigate work environment and employee’s commitment in three selected Institutions such as Rivers State University, University of Port Harcourt and Ignatius Ajuru University of Education in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. For the purpose of this study, descriptive research design was used. Simple random sampling technique was respectively used to select the respondents for the study. Respondents for this study were fifty (60) made up of twenty-five (35) senior staff and twentyfive (25) junior staff. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection. The study findings indicate that, organization working environment had an impact on members as far as respondents are concerned. The study also revealed that employees’ will improve their performance if the problems identified during the research are tackled by the management. The problems are flexibility of working environment, work noise distraction, supervisor’s interpersonal relationship with subordinates, presence of job aid, the use of performance feedback and improve of work incentives in the organization so that to motivate employees to perform their job. In conclusion based on the findings the study recommended that, the organization needs to have periodic meetings with employees to air their grievances to management and serve as a motivating factor to the employees. Management should find ways and means of communicating their goals and strategies to their employees in order to achieve what the organization is in business for, its mission and vision.
Share
Transcript
  • 1. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume- 9, Issue- 4 (August 2019) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.9.4.20 138 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Work Environment and Employee’s Commitment in Three Selected Institutions in Rivers State Nwachukwu Precious Ikechukwu1 , Joy I.N. Ezeh2 , Oshogbunu Esther Ogochukwu3 , Ogulu Nkechinyere4 and Naagbo Dumle5 1 Lecturer, Department of Petroleum Marketing and Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas Bonny, Rivers State, NIGERIA 2 Team Leader, Fidelity Pension Managers Limited, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NIGERIA 3 Manager, Fitness Department, Charlies Total Fitness Centre, Rivers State NIGERIA 4 Accountant, Marine Department, Ross International Nigeria Limited, Rivers State, NIGERIA 5 Student, Management Department, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt Rivers State, NIGERIA 1 Corresponding Author: nwachukwupi27@gmail.Com ASTRACT The aim of this study is to investigate work environment and employee’s commitment in three selected Institutions such as Rivers State University, University of Port Harcourt and Ignatius Ajuru University of Education in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. For the purpose of this study, descriptive research design was used. Simple random sampling technique was respectively used to select the respondents for the study. Respondents for this study were fifty (60) made up of twenty-five (35) senior staff and twenty- five (25) junior staff. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection. The study findings indicate that, organization working environment had an impact on members as far as respondents are concerned. The study also revealed that employees’ will improve their performance if the problems identified during the research are tackled by the management. The problems are flexibility of working environment, work noise distraction, supervisor’s interpersonal relationship with subordinates, presence of job aid, the use of performance feedback and improve of work incentives in the organization so that to motivate employees to perform their job. In conclusion based on the findings the study recommended that, the organization needs to have periodic meetings with employees to air their grievances to management and serve as a motivating factor to the employees. Management should find ways and means of communicating their goals and strategies to their employees in order to achieve what the organization is in business for, its mission and vision. Keywords-- Work Environment, Employee Committee, Institutions, Motivation, High Productivity, Work Climate, Reduction Error and Physical Environment I. INTRODUCTION Human beings are very complex in their psychological make-up and hence, managers cannot influence employees’ inner state directly, they can however create work environment that encourages quality performance. According to Onwuka 2002), many managers and supervisors labour under the mistaken impression that the level of employees’ performance on the job is proportional to the size of the employees pay pocket. In fact, salary increases and bonuses or performance in many instances, have a very limited term. The extra money soon comes to be regarded not as an incentive but as an entitlement. There are other factors such as conducive working environment free from danger, communication low, manageable work load when combined with other actors provide a more powerful determinant of employees commitment. However, when these factors are missing, the employee come to work only for a check and is present at work in body only leaving their mind outside the gate. It is the quality of the employees work environment that must impact on their level of commitment and consequently on performance. Statement of the Problem Companies play an essential role in terms of providing information services to patrons within and outside the company. In order for company staff to give their best, remain competent and effective in fulfilling their duties, it is the responsibility of management of the companies to ensure that there is in existence a good working environment. The absence of this will lead to lack of commitment on the part of employees and this can bring about high level of service deficiency in the company. However, ensuring employee commitment may depend significantly on good work environment. From literature, it was discovered that staff get dissatisfaction with their work environment in the developing countries for some obvious reasons. This dissatisfaction may lead to lack of commitment in their work environment. Purpose of the Study The main purpose of this study is to investigate work environment and employee’s commitment in selected Institutions in Port Harcourt City of Rivers State. To achieve this purpose, the following objectives have been identified: 1. To determine the work environment features in existing companies in Port Harcourt
  • 2. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume- 9, Issue- 4 (August 2019) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.9.4.20 139 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2. To determine the level of organizational commitment among staffs in several companies in Port Harcourt 3. To find out the constraints to organizational commitment among staffs in several companies in Port Harcourt 4. To determine the relationship between work environment and organizational commitment among staffs in several companies. Research Question 1. What are the work environments features existing in companies in Port Harcourt? 2. What is the level of organizational commitment in staff of companies in Port Harcourt? 3. What are the constraints to organizational commitment of staff in companies in Port Harcourt? 4. What are the relationship between work environment and organizational commitment among staffs in several companies? II. LITERATURE REVIEW The Work Environment Many scholars have attempted conceptualizing the working environment. Perhaps it may be defined in its simplest form as the settings, situations, conditions and circumstances under which people work. It is further elaborated by Briner, (2000) as a very broad category that encompasses the physical setting (e.g. heat, equipments etc.), characteristics of the job itself (e.g. workload, task complexity), broader organizational features (e.g. culture, history) and even aspects of the extra organizational setting (e.g. local labour market conditions, industry sector, work-home relationships). Components of Workplace Environments Work environments have many properties, components or factors that may affect both physical and psychological well-being of workers (Briner, 2000). How well employees engage with factors in their working environments influences to a great extent their error rate, level of innovation and collaboration with other employees, absenteeism and ultimately, how long they stay in the job (Chandrasekar, 2011) which is a function of their commitment towards work. Chandrasekar identified twelve factors in workplace environment which either lead to engagement or disengagement of workers. Job Commitment Dixit, and Bhati, (2012) revealed that the concept of organizational commitment was derived from Whyte’s article in 1956, The Organization Man, which states that commitment comes into being when a person links extraneous interests with a consistent line of activity by making a side bet. In this review, organisational commitment is used synonymously with job commitment both of which entails more psychological concepts than environmental factors of workplace. Pay and Job Commitment Since the concept of job commitment has attracted increasing attention on the intensity and stability of the individual’s dedication to the job as a result of remunerations, it becomes necessary to investigate how job commitment in the workplace links with feelings of equity especially pay equity. Few empirical studies have been done to investigate the extent to which pay can influence commitment (Omolayo & Owolabi, 2007; Dhawan & Mulla 2010; Chaudhry, Sabir, Rafi & Kalyar 2011; Anvari, Amin, Ahmad, Seliman & Garmsari, 2011; Yaldez & Rahman, 2013). Job Commitment As a component of workplace environment, many attempts have been made to link some areas of company policies with employee’s job commitment; none actually was specific as regards company policies mentioned in Kyko’s framework. Company policies was conceptualised in Kyko (2005) as winlose policies, centralization of power, creating privileged groups in the organization, closed door policy, poor fringe benefits, too much red tape. III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design The study employed descriptive survey research designs approached because it provided overview of the data elicited from the respondents concerning the way and manner which staffs were exposed in work environment and employee’s commitment in several companies in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State. 3.2 Area of the Study This research will be carried out in Port Harcourt local government area of Rivers State 3.3 Population of the Study The population of the study includes 70 companies’ staffs’ in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State. The sample will be comprised of staffs in several departments in the selected Institutions. Table 3.1: Categories of the Target Population Category RSU UNIPORT I.A.O.E Total Management 2 3 4 9 Head of Department 2 2 1 5 Employees 16 15 15 46 Total 20 20 20 60
  • 3. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume- 9, Issue- 4 (August 2019) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.9.4.20 140 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 3.4 Sample and Sampling Size This research work will sample staffs in selected companies in Port Harcourt local Government Area of Rivers State. The sample size will be randomly selected staffs in several companies Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State. A total of 70 staffs will be used in determined the sample size of a given population, the formula below. This is Mathematically Derived using the Taro Yamen’s Formula as n= Where: n=the sample size N=total population size e=error margin limit 1=constant n = n = n = n = n =59.99 3.5 Research Instrument The research instrument for this study will be the questionnaire. According to Ojo (2005) questionnaire is a instrument containing some questions and statements (some with suggested alterative answers) for which the questions or confirm the statements. The questionnaire that will e used in the study will be divided in two sections. Section A contained information about the respondents that is their gender, marital status, age, educational qualification, years of working experience etc. Section B contained items on the employee motivation and job performance. 3.6 Validity of the Research Instrument A number of concepts are involved in a discussion of validity. Different types of validity have been identified. These include, the predictive validity which is the validity of an instrument to predict some future events, the concurrent validity which is usually measured by the calculation of a correction coefficient between the distribution of test scores and some concurrently existing criterion measure, the content validity which is essentially determined by the process through which the items were selected. 3.7 Method of Data Analysis Descriptive statistics which includes frequencies, mean, standard deviation, Pearson product moment correction and percentages. Data collected was reported using frequency tables. IV. RESULTS This chapter deals with the presentation of data gathering from the field, while at the same time analyze and interpreted the results. 4.1 Data Presentation Source: survey data 2019 4.2 Findings and Data Analysis 4.2.1 Gender of Respondents The study involved gender distribution of respondents in order to answer the questionnaires provided as shown on the table Table 4.1: Gender of Respondents 2)(1 eN N  2)(1 eN N  2)05.0(701 70  0025.0701 70 x 175.0 70 Total no. of Questionnaire Distributed No. of Questionnaire Returned Percentage (%) Returned No. of Questionnaire not Returned Percentage (%) not Returned 60 50 83.35% 10 16.5% Respondents Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative Percent Female 24 48.0 48.0 48.0
  • 4. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume- 9, Issue- 4 (August 2019) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.9.4.20 141 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Source: Researcher, 2019 Table 4.1 above depicts that 52% and 48 % of respondents of male and female respectively answered the questionnaires distributed 4.2.2 Rank of Respondents The rank of respondents in this study was used in order to answer the distributed questionnaires. Table 4.2: Rank of Respondents Source: Researcher, 2019 From the table4.2, the junior staff of the organization makes up 50% of the employees who responded the distributed questionnaires. The remaining 50% makeup the senior staff. 4.2.3 Age of Respondents In this study, age of the respondents was considered to be important in finding the impact of working environment on employees’ performance at institute of finance management. Table 4.3: Age of Respondents Source: Researcher, 2019 The 31-40 year group constituted 40% of respondents and was highest number of respondents followed by 20-30 with 28% and then the 40-50 which made up 26% of the respondents. The lowest number of respondents was within the 50 and above which made6% of employees. Male 26 52.0 52.0 100.0 Total 50 100.0 Respondents Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative percent Junior staffs 25 50.0 50.0 50.0 Senior staffs 25 50.0 50.0 100.0 Total 50 100.0 100.0 Respondents Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent 20-30years 14 28.0 28.0 28.0 31-40years 20 40.0 40.0 68.0 41-50years 13 26.0 26.0 94.0 50 and above 3 6.0 6.0 100.0 Total 50 100.0 100.0
  • 5. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume- 9, Issue- 4 (August 2019) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.9.4.20 142 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 4.2.4 Physical Working Environment Physical working environment in this study have been considered as one of the factors towards employees’ performance as responded by employees through distributed questionnaires. Table4.4: Physical Working Environment Responses Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent Very bad 11 22.0 22.0 22.0 Bad 10 20.0 20.0 46.0 Moderate 13 26.0 26.0 68.0 Good 8 16.0 16.0 52.0 Very good 8 16.0 16.0 100.0 Total 50 100.0 100.0 Source: Researcher, 2019 Majority of the employees from the table 4.4 which constitute 26% described their physical working environment towards performance as moderate to influence them to stay in the office and work comfortable. 22% of the employees said the physical working environments very bad for them stay in the office and work comfortable. 20% of the employees describe the physical working environment towards performance as bad for them stay in the office and work comfortable while 16% of employees said their physical working environment is good and the remaining 16% of employees was very good for them and work comfortable. Majority of employees agree that there exists a strong relation between physical working environment and motivation for them to perform. This shows that it is the responsibilities of the organization to provide friendly working environment which will influence employees to work comfortable and perform their job. 4.2.5 Workplace Noise Distraction The table 4.5 explained the presence of how noise distractions at the working place affected employees’ performance. Table 4.5: Workplace Noise Distraction Source: Researcher, 2019 From the table 4.5, 38% of employees are strongly agree that presence of noise distractions at the working place affects their performance negatively while30% of the employees disagree that the noise at their workplace distracts them. 22% of employees agree that the noise distractions at the working place affect their performance. The remaining 10% of employees strongly disagree that noise at their workplace distracts them. Workplace noise distraction has impact on employees’ performance as Responses Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent Strongly disagree 5 10.0 10.0 20.0 Disagree 15 30.0 30.0 30.0 Agree 11 22.0 22.0 52.0 Strongly agree 19 38.0 38.0 100.0 TOTAL 50 100.0 100.0
  • 6. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume- 9, Issue- 4 (August 2019) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.9.4.20 143 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. resulted to uncomfortable and loosing employees’ concentration in performing their task. 4.2.6 Employee Recognition as Individual Employee recognition as individual was considered to be important factor towards employee performance. The following were the response. Table 4.6: Employee Recognition as Individual Response Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent Always 8 16.0 16.0 16.0 Usually 10 20.0 20.0 36.0 Sometimes 16 32.0 32.0 68.0 Rarely 8 16.0 16.0 84.0 Never 7 14.0 14.0 98.0 Not sure 1 2.0 2.0 100.0 Total 50 100.0 100.0 Source: Researcher, 2019 As shown from table 4.9 that, 32% of the employees said they are sometimes recognized as individual, followed by 20% who said they are usually recognized as individuals in the organization. 16 % of the employees said they are rarely recognized as individuals and another 16% said they are always recognized as individuals where as 14% said they are never recognized as individuals by the organization. 2% said they not sure if they are recognized as individuals in the organization or not. Being not recognized as individual has negative impact on employees performance because of no feeling exist between them and the organization which occasionally demoralize them as they cannot air their views. V. CONCLUSION Working environment plays a vital role in motivating employees to perform their assigned job. Since money is not a sufficient motivator in encouraging the workplace performance required in today’s competitive business environment. The ability to attract, keep and motivate high-performance is becoming increasingly important in today’s competitive organizational environments. At the end of the research, it was realized that the employee’s working environment find themselves in, affect their productivity greatly. Therefore it is the responsibilities of the organization to provide friendly working environment which will influence employees to work comfortable and perform their job. RECOMMENDATIONS Based the finding the following recommendations was stated: 1. Management should try as much as possible to build a work environment that attracts, retain and motivate its employees so that to help them work comfortable and increase organization productivity. 2. Employers should have in place a good working condition for their employees in order to boost their morale and made them more efficient. An example is making their benefit programs to suit employees. 3. Management should find ways and means of communicating their goals and strategies to their employees in order to achieve what the organization is in business for, its mission and vision REFERENCES [1] Abdulla, J., Djebarni, R., & Mellahi, K. (2010). Determinants of job satisfaction
  • Related Search
    Similar documents
    View more
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks
    SAVE OUR EARTH

    We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

    More details...

    Sign Now!

    We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

    x