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  Motivation “The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward achieving a goal” ã ã ã Intensity = how hard an employee tries Direction = should benefit the organization (i.e. quality of effort counts!) Persistence = how long can an employee maintain his/her effort? intrinsic motivation An incentive to do something that arises from factors within the individual, such as a need to feel useful or to seek self-actualization. Examples of Intrinsic
   Motivation  “The processes that account for an individual’sintensity, direction, and persistence of effort towardachieving a goal” ã   Intensity = how hard an employee tries ã   Direction = should benefit the organization (i.e. quality of effort counts!) ã   Persistence = how long can an employee maintain his/her effort? intrinsic motivation An incentive to do something that arises from factors within theindividual, such as a need to feel useful or to seek self-actualization. Examples of Intrinsic Motivation  Writing short stories because you really enjoy writing them, reading a nonfiction book  because you are curious about the topic, and playing chess because you enjoy effortfulthinking are some intrinsic motivation examples.Examples of intrinsic motivation would be doing something because you feel it is themoral and ethical thing to do; doing something because you know it will benefit others or doing something because it brings you pleasure and joy. extrinsic motivation An incentive to do something that arises from factors outside theindividual, such as rewards or punishments.  Examples of Extrinsic Motivation  There are many possible extrinsic motivation examples. The writer who only writes poems to be submitted to poetry contests would be one example of extrinsic motivation.The person who dislikes sales but accepts a sales position because he or she desires toearn an above average salary is another example of extrinsic motivation.The promise of a bonus if one meets agreed performance targets is an obvious example of suchmotivation. Intrinsically motivated students are bound to do much better in classroom activities, because they are willing and eager to learn new material. Their learning experience ismore meaningful, and they go deeper into the subject to fully understand it. On the other hand, extrinsically motivated students may have to be bribed to perform the same tasks. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory  Abraham Maslow defined need as a physiological or psychological deficiency that a person feels the compulsion to satisfy. This need can create tensions that can influence a person's work attitudes and behaviors. Maslow formed a theory based on his definition of need that proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and that these needsexist in a hierarchical order. His premise is that only an unsatisfied need can influence behavior; a satisfied need is not a motivator.Maslow's theory is based on the following two principles: ã Deficit principle: A satisfied need no longer motivates behavior because peopleact to satisfy deprived needs. ã Progression principle: The five needs he identified exist in a hierarchy, whichmeans that a need at any level only comes into play after a lower-level need has been satisfied.In his theory, Maslow identified five levels of human needs. Table1illustrates these fivelevels and provides suggestions for satisfying each need. TABLE 1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Human NeedsHigher Level Needs   To Satisfy, Offer:  Self-actualization needsCreative and challenging work Participation in decision makingJob flexibility and autonomyEsteem needsResponsibility of an important jobPromotion to higher status jobPraise and recognition from boss  Lower Level Needs   To Satisfy, Offer:   Social needsFriendly coworkersInteraction with customersPleasant supervisor Safety needsSafe working conditionsJob securityBase compensation and benefitsPhysiological needsRest and refreshment breaksPhysical comfort on the job  Higher Level Needs   To Satisfy, Offer:  Reasonable work hoursAlthough research has not verified the strict deficit and progression principles of Maslow's theory, his ideas can help managers understand and satisfy the needs of employees. Herzberg's two-factor theory Frederick Herzberg offers another framework for understanding the motivationalimplications of work environments.In his two-factor theory, Herzberg identifies two sets of factors that impact motivationin the workplace: ã Hygiene factors include salary, job security, working conditions, organizational policies, and technical quality of supervision. Although these factors do notmotivate employees, they can cause dissatisfaction if they are missing. Somethingas simple as adding music to the office place or implementing a no-smoking policy can make people less dissatisfied with these aspects of their work.However, these improvements in hygiene factors do not necessarily increasesatisfaction. ã Satisfiers or  motivators include such things as responsibility, achievement,growth opportunities, and feelings of recognition, and are the key to jobsatisfaction and motivation. For example, managers can find out what peoplereally do in their jobs and make improvements, thus increasing job satisfactionand performance.Following Herzberg's two-factor theory, managers need to ensure that hygiene factors areadequate and then build satisfiers into jobs. Alderfer's ERG theory Clayton Alderfer's ERG (Existence, Relatedness, Growth) theory is built uponMaslow's hierarchy of needs theory. To begin his theory, Alderfer collapses Maslow'sfive levels of needs into three categories. ã Existence needs are desires for physiological and material well-being. (In termsof Maslow's model, existence needs include physiological and safety needs) ã Relatedness needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. (In termsof Maslow's model, relatedness correspondence to social needs) ã Growth needs are desires for continued psychological growth and development.(In terms of Maslow's model, growth needs include esteem and self-realizationneeds)  This approach proposes that unsatisfied needs motivate behavior, and that as lower levelneeds are satisfied, they become less important. Higher level needs, though, become moreimportant as they are satisfied, and if these needs are not met, a person may move downthe hierarchy, which Alderfer calls the  frustration-regression principle. What he means by this term is that an already satisfied lower level need can become reactivated andinfluence behavior when a higher level need cannot be satisfied. As a result, managersshould provide opportunities for workers to capitalize on the importance of higher levelneeds. Equity theory According to the equity theory, based on the work of J. Stacy Adams, workers comparethe reward potential to the effort they must expend. Equity exists when workers perceivethat rewards equal efforts (see Figure1). Figure 1 The equity theory.But employees just don't look at their potential rewards, they look at the rewards of others as well. Inequities occur when people feel that their rewards are inferior to therewards offered to other persons sharing the same workloads.Employees who feel they are being treated inequitably may exhibit the following behaviors: ã Put less effort into their jobs ã Ask for better treatment and/or rewards ã Find ways to make their work seem better by comparison ã Transfer or quit their jobs
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