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  Topic 4 and 5 [40 marks]  1.In an area of forest measuring 100 m by 100 m, samples were taken to estimate the number of silver maple (Acer saccharinum)trees in the forest. The number of trees counted in each of five areas of 400 m was recorded.Approximately how many silver maple trees are in the 10000m area of forest?A. 5B. 25C. 125D. 625 Markscheme C 22 2.The diagram shows the carbon cycle.[Source: © International Baccalaureate Organization 2017] Which two processes correspond to the labelled arrows?A. K is combustion and L is catabolism.B. J is anabolism and K is respiration.C. J is combustion and K is respiration.D. J is anabolism and L is catabolism.  Markscheme C [1 mark] [1 mark]   3.Which of these structures is not homologous? [Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_anatomy#/media/File:Homology_vertebrates-en.svg andhttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Insect_leg_scheme.svg]  Markscheme C4.In which domain are bryophyta found?A. PlantaeB. ArchaeaC. EubacteriaD. Eukaryote Markscheme D5.Which category of organisms is correctly described by its method of nutrition and site of digestion? Markscheme A [1 mark] [1 mark] [1 mark]   6.The image shows a female Golden Orb-weaving spider  (Nephila plumipes  ). They can grow as large as 4 cm and build webs strongenough to trap small birds for food. Which of the following describe(s) this spider?I. Primary consumerII. HeterotrophIII. ArthropodA. I onlyB. I and II onlyC. II and III onlyD. I, II and III Markscheme C7.What is a population?A. Organisms of the same genus living in an ecosystemB. Organisms living together and interacting in the same habitatC. Organisms of a species living together in the same areaD. Organisms that can breed together Markscheme C8.What is accepted by scientists as evidence for evolution?I. Similarities in bone structure between the wings of a bat and the fins of a porpoiseII. Changes in dog breeds caused by artificial selectionIII. Extinction of dinosaursA. I onlyB. I and II onlyC. I and III onlyD. I, II and III Markscheme B [1 mark] [1 mark] [1 mark]   9.A biologist exploring an uninhabited island came across an unknown plant. She made the following notes:ã grows in a damp and shady corner of the island ã has large feathery leaves with spore cases (sporangia) arranged on the undersideã young leaves are tightly rolled upãhas roots.In what phylum should she classify this plant?A. AngiospermophytaB. BryophytaC. ConiferophytaD. Filicinophyta Markscheme D10.Which organisms have flowers?A. BryophytaB. PoriferaC. AngiospermophytaD. Cnidaria Markscheme C11.Global warming threatens the survival of Arctic foxes. Which of the following factors could be involved?I. Competition with other fox species spreading northII. Reduction in numbers of prey species of Arctic foxesIII. Decrease in oxygen availability to Arctic foxesA. I onlyB. I and II onlyC. II and III onlyD. I, II and III Markscheme B12.How do the concepts of gradualism and punctuated equilibrium differ?A. The timing of evolutionB. The mechanism causing evolutionC. The sequence of evolutionary eventsD. The reality of evolution Markscheme A [1 mark] [1 mark] [1 mark] [1 mark] 
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