THE BALANCE BETWEEN SOCIAL LIFE AND WORK AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH WORK STRESS – AN APPLIED STUDY ON THE MINISTRY OF YOUTH AND SPORTS AFFAIRS IN THE KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN

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  The aim of this research is to identify the degree of the balance between social life and work and to measure the level of work stress of the employees of the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. One hundred employees were surveyed through a random stratified sample. The analysis is based on the outcomes of the questionnaire survey that was given out to a representative sample in the ministry. The researchers hypothesized that there is a significant relationship between the balance of social life, work, and work stress for the employees in the Ministry. Findings revealed the existence of work stress that resulted in work pressure. Employees see their commitment to the vocational rules contributed to improving their professional performance. Management considers the capabilities and skills of the employees when they are assigned to work on tasks.Based on findings, there are some recommendations, including the need for workshops and training sessions to help employees to overcome work stress and deal with multiple teams.
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  • 1. International Journal of Data Mining & Knowledge Management Process (IJDKP) Vol.9, No.1, January 2019 DOI: 10.5121/ijdkp.2019.9102 21 THE BALANCE BETWEEN SOCIAL LIFE AND WORK AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH WORK STRESS – AN APPLIED STUDY ON THE MINISTRY OF YOUTH AND SPORTS AFFAIRS IN THE KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN Najwa Naseeb Saad Faraj1 , Atheelah Al Azzawi2 , Saad Darwish3 , Horiya Al Deeb4 1 West Riffa Secondary Girls School, Kingdom of Bahrain 2,4 Applied Science University (ASU), Kingdom of Bahrain 3 Kingdom University, Kingdom of Bahrain ABSTRACT The aim of this research is to identify the degree of the balance between social life and work and to measure the level of work stress of the employees of the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. One hundred employees were surveyed through a random stratified sample. The analysis is based on the outcomes of the questionnaire survey that was given out to a representative sample in the ministry. The researchers hypothesized that there is a significant relationship between the balance of social life, work, and work stress for the employees in the Ministry. Findings revealed the existence of work stress that resulted in work pressure. Employees see their commitment to the vocational rules contributed to improving their professional performance. Management considers the capabilities and skills of the employees when they are assigned to work on tasks.Based on findings, there are some recommendations, including the need for workshops and training sessions to help employees to overcome work stress and deal with multiple teams. KEYWORDS Social life and work, work stress, conflict, Kingdom of Bahrain 1. INTRODUCTION A balance between social life and work is a recent concept that is introduced to society because of recent life dynamic nature. Family responsibilities have increased to a degree that impedes the social dimension for family life and affects its psychological situation. The importance of the balance between social life and work in due to caring for the individual peace and family protection from collapse. Recent civil life causes some problems related to the employee’s life and work. These problems should be resolved rapidly through scrutinizing the concept of the balance between social life and work. Work pressure is considered as a barrier for professional development. It affects the health and psychological situation of the employee and then affects his professional performance and productivity at work negatively. The effects of work pressure have five consequences according to the literature. Behavioral such as addiction to painkillers, over eating and smoking, subjective as anxiety, aggression, indifference and lack of self-esteem,
  • 2. International Journal of Data Mining & Knowledge Management Process (IJDKP) Vol.9, No.1, January 2019 22 cognitive as weak decision-making, weak focus and physiological as increased heartbeat and hypertension. Further organizational such as low productivity, high turnover rates, job dissatisfaction, and high absence rate and low loyalty. Here we tried to investigate and identify to what extent employees are able to balance between social life and work with the presence of work pressure relating to the case of the study. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Literature review is presented in section (2).Section (3) introduces the methodology. Discussion and results of statistical analysis are explained in section (4), while conclusions are in section (5). 2. THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW The statement is self-explanatory “The balance between social life and work” as it indicated creates tension and confusion for some people and makes them take the wrong path sometimes in dealing with issues. There are three models. The first model is the traditional model, which is characterized by the fact that there are clear boarders between work and personal life. It considers work is separated from the individual’s personal life and work duration is between 5 – 9 hours a day. According to this model, people don’t undertake any work related to their work outside work place and people don’t talk about any details related to work with any person outside the work place. It considers that people work for money, not more. Some people dislike their work and always are complaining and keep searching for other jobs to get a better salary. However, even when they get a new job with a higher salary, they start again to complain .People always feel stress in their work and feel happy when they leave their work. People show enthusiasm in their holidays (Maher, 2010, 88). The second model considers most people do not see that work as separated from their personal life they have no borders between work and their personal lives. People work for long hours and take their work home to finish what they started at work. They work continuously and even on holidays. Some people when they leave work or go out for any social activity, they pass most of their time working on their personal computer and following their electronic mail. People love the technology dimension, and pass most of their time to complete their projects and they don’t care about money. People are afraid of looking for a new job as they are interested in their work (Aldulaimi & Abdeldayem, 2018, and ALbayatii, 2011, 97). The third model is seen as the ideal model. According to this model, personal life is completely detached from work. There is always clear objectives in people’s life and they realize money but also they like to live happily with family and friends. They look for the job they likeand their families and friends support them. They have a positive attitude towards everything in life (Maher, 2010, 88).They do not go to work only for money but also theylove work which has a positive on others .They try to add value and meaning to the world (ALbayatti, 2011, 113). Table 1 : Definitions of balance between social life and work Serial Author Definition a (Clark, 2001) Satisfaction in work and at home with minimum conflict of roles. b (Kirchmeyer, 2001) Realizing satisfaction in all life domains and providing all the required personal resources as effort, time and commitment.
  • 3. International Journal of Data Mining & Knowledge Management Process (IJDKP) Vol.9, No.1, January 2019 23 c (Hill, 2001) The extent that enables people to balance between the temporary, emotional and behavior requirements for both work and family responsibilities together. d (Kalliath & Brough, 2008) Balance between life and work is the persons’ perception for professional and non-professional activities which are consistent and support growth according to the current priorities of people’s life. e (Voydanoff, 2008) Balance between life and work is a universal evaluation for family resources and working efficiently for meeting work and family requirements. 2.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BALANCE BETWEEN SOCIAL LIFE AND WORK: The importance of the balance between social life and work lies in creating a healthy and preserved work environment (Aldulaimi and Abdeldayem, 2018). It enables employees to balance between their work and personal responsibilities, and it reinforces their work loyalty, so their productivity increases. Employees have many responsibilities, as their work, taking care of children, home works, and voluntary works and taking care of parents and old people. These responsibilities are considered as stress on persons, families and society. So, the conflict between life and work is a serious problem that affects employees, managers and society in general (Nesairat, 2010, 39). Some people see that balance between social life and work is impossible, others see that it can be applied for everyone for increasing productivity levels and incentives in work place. So, balance between life and work is considered as an inevitable issue that aims at separating social life from work to avoid stress and diseases like heart, diabetes diseases and alcohol addiction (Nesairat, 2010, 67). 2.2 FACTORS AFFECTING THE BALANCE BETWEEN SOCIAL LIFE AND WORK: Economic changes like globalization and knowledge economics, a social and institutional changes such as health care, and difficulties in taking care or people of special needs, children and old people. Demographic characteristics such as one parent families and new generation.Changes in the organization’s work by increasing the work stress, flexibility and remote work. Changes in the structure of the manpower and work structure relating to work stress because of increasing work lead and unsafe job (Abdeldayem, 2018 and Al Ghalbi, 2010, 163) 2.3 STAGES OF DEVELOPING BALANCE BETWEEN LIFE AND WORK: - At the end of the nineteenth century, a balance between life and work started when reformers succeeded in a campaign against long work hours in the factories that affected workers outputs. - At the beginning of the twentieth century, campaigns against long work hours continued giving attention to the importance of incentives, fatigue and concentration to discover the circumstances that encourage reducing worktime and increasing production. - In 1970, there was a turning point as a result of many factors such as universal competitiveness, technology changes, new organizations, increase of women participation, perception of the importance of equality between men and women differentiation of needs during work time. - In 1980, the concentration was on flexible work and reforming of the work market.
  • 4. International Journal of Data Mining & Knowledge Management Process (IJDKP) Vol.9, No.1, January 2019 24 - In 1990, the government interfered to provide employees with definite capabilities and rights relating to realizing the balance between personal life and work appropriately. Matching with the European Union Laws, The United Kingdom enacted laws that reflects the wish to realize the balance between the personal life and work such as motherhood and fatherhood rights, parent’s rights and urgent cases holidays (Amer, 2011, 48). 2.4 AIMS OF THE BALANCE BETWEEN SOCIAL LIFE AND WORK: Satisfaction of individual’s needs that can be classified into four needs: a. Physiological needs that aim at human survival as food, drink, residence, sleep and rest (Abdellatif, 2010,92). b. Psychological needs that aim at psychological growth and prevention of psychological disorders as security, reassurance, self-reliance and achievement (Andraoes and Maaiaa, 2010, 112). c. Social needs that aim at developing the relationship between men and others as love, appreciation and loyalty (Abdellatif, 2010, 101). d. Spiritual needs that relates to the spiritual dimension of men as marriage, reproduction, honoring parents and connections with extended family members (Aqlah, 2010, 119). 2.5 WORK STRESS: Work stress leads to the anxiety and emotion that affects the professional tasks and duties and also affects the individual’s relations with other people working in the organization (Al Tamimi, 2011, 69). Work stress leads to negative environmental factors such as ambiguity of role, roles conflict, bad work conditions and over burden (Al meshaan, 2010, 83). 2.5.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF WORK STRESS STUDY: It is very important to study work stress as it leads to organizations’ suffering from employees’ absence, losing the desire for innovation, low motivation and low commitment. All this affects employee’s performance and their end results (Ismail, 2012). 2.5.2 WORK PRESSURE FACTORS: a. The stimulus which can result from the individual or the organizations or the environment. b. Response as the physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions as anxiety tension and frustration. c. The interaction between factors and respondents (Al Sabaie, 2010, 27). 2.5.3 WORK STRESS SOURCES: a. The environment with its social, political, legal and economic changes. b. Family, its expectation and the conflict between its requirements and work requirements. Also family’s events as death and diseases (Al Qtaish, 2011,34). c. Personal events that cause tension (Jooda, 2010,97) d. The conflict between individual personality and work requirements (Bahar, 2010,60). e. Personal relations disruption (AlQtaish. 2011,62).
  • 5. International Journal of Data Mining & Knowledge Management Process (IJDKP) Vol.9, No.1, January 2019 25 f. Work difficulty g. The ambiguity of role (Ibrahim 2010, 45) h. Role conflict i. Work environment disruption as an inconvenient physical work environment (light, heat, humidity & noise) lead to stress (Al Bader, 2010, 17) 2.5.4 WORK STRESS EFFECTS: First: The positive effects: a. Motivation b. More focus on work results (Al Qahtani, 2011, 68) c. Ability to express feelings and emotions. d. Accomplishment, increase of trust and vitality. (Dodween, 2012, 56). Second: The negative effects: 1. Effects on individuals: a. Behavioral effects such as insomnia, over-smoking, anorexia, change in sleeping habits, ad use of sedative medications (Askar, 2010, 67). b. Psychological effects such as sadness, frustration, anxiety, pessimism, difficult, forgetting and emotional imbalance. c. Health effects such as headaches, ulcers, diabetes, blood pressure and heart diseases (Amer, 2011, 19). 2. Effects on organization: a. Increase of costs b. Lose productivity level and quality of work done. c. Difficulty of concentration at work and more industrial accidents. d. Low morale e. Employee’s dissatisfaction. f. Absence g. Delays h. Increase of complaints and grievances. i. Bad relations between employees. j. Bad communication because of the ambiguity of roles k. High turnover rate (Dodween, 2012,75). 2.5.5 STRATEGIES TO DEAL WITH WORK STRESS First: Strategies for individuals: a. Meditation is a way to train one’s mind to work under pressure. b. Relaxation, as the body rests this leads to mental comfort. c. Focus, as it helps the individual to forget stress sources and concentrate to accomplish a distinguished work (Ghoneim, 2010,37) d. Exercises, to increase the effectiveness of body parts to concentrate. e. Friendship, encouragement and social cooperation help the individual to work under pressure.
  • 6. International Journal of Data Mining & Knowledge Management Process (IJDKP) Vol.9, No.1, January 2019 26 f. Having clear, realistic and planned objectives for work, helps the individual to work under pressure (Asfoor, 2010, 28). Second: strategies for the organization: a. Good application for the principles of management to spread the managerial discipline (Al Sairafi, 2010, 46). b. Redesigning the organizational chart to solve work stress problems as adding a new managerial level or merge of functions (Al Sairafi, 2010,33) c. Organizational development through developing employees selection systems or redesigning training and performance evaluation systems (Al Shanty, 2010,41) d. Precise section for roles requirements to prevent roles conflict. e. Physical environment organizing to make the work easy and reduce risk. f. Treatment systems to reduce work stress as appointing a psychologist and customizing rooms for exercises (Al Sakarn, 2010,68) 3. STUDY METHODOLOGY 3.1 RESEARCH PROBLEM: Work stress is considered one of the managerial diseases that negatively affect the employees. It resulted from roles conflicts, the nature of work and work environment as work responsibilities interference with social ones resulting in more stress and exhaustion. The solution to this problem is trying to balance social life and work. So, the problem of this research is phrased through the answer to the following questions: What is the level of balance between social life and stress for the employees in the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain? According to the opinions of the employees there. 3.2 IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH: The balance between social life and work is considered animportant and recent topic in the Arab world (Abdeldayem and Aldulaimi, 2018). Also, the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain is considered as one of the most important associations that care about youth projects and achievements in all fields. Employees have many responsibilities and stress, so this research aims to identify the reasons of work stress and its reflection on employees in the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain in order to avoid this problem though the activation of the balance between social life and work. 3.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES: a. To identify the extent of balance between social life and work for employees of the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. b. To measure the level of work stress for employees in the Ministry of youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. c. To identify the relationship between the balance of social life and work and its reflections on the work stress of the employees of the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. d. Introducing recommendations in light of the results of the research.
  • 7. International Journal of Data Mining & Knowledge Management Process (IJDKP) Vol.9, No.1, January 2019 27 3.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES: Main hypotheses 1: H1: There is a significant relationship between the balance of social life and work, and work stress for the employees in the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Subsidiary hypotheses 1: H1: There is a significant relationship between the personal and social dimension for the balance between social life and work, and work stress for the employees of the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Subsidiary hypotheses 2: H1: There is a significant relationship between the psychological and behavioral dimension for the balance between social life and work, and work stress for the employees in the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Subsidiary hypothesis 3: H1: There is a significant relationship between the professional dimension for the balance between social life and work, and work stress for the employees in the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Subsidiary hypotheses 4: H1: There is a significant relationship between the economic dimension for the balance between social life and work, and work stress for the employees of the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Main Hypothesis 2: H1: There are significant differences between the balance between social life and work, and work stress due to the demographic characteristics (Gender, age, qualification, years of experience, training courses) for the employees of the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain
  • 8. International Journal of Data Mining & Knowledge Management Process (IJDKP) Vol.9, No.1, January 2019 28 3.5 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK: Figure 1: Research framework 3.6 POPULATION AND SAMPLE OF THE RESEARCH: Employees of the Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs in the Kingdom of Bahrain (230) are considered as the research population, and a random stratified sample (100) was selected. The sample provided information through filling a questionnaire which is considered the core of data for this research. 3.7 DATA COLLECTION: A five-point Likert Scale was used to collect the questionnaire survey as follows: 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree A number of 120 questionnaires were circulated and a total of 110 were collected. Ten of them were in complete, so we discarded them. One hundred were considered with a response of 91.7%
  • 9. International Journal of Data Mining & Knowledge Management Process (IJDKP) Vol.9, No.1, January 2019 29 4. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND RESULTS: Statistical results of Pearson correlation are as follows: Table 2 : Pearson correlation co-efficient Table (
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