ΑΠΟΚΑΤΑΣΤΑΣΗ ΔΥΤΙΚΟΥ ΤΟΙΧΟΥ ΣΗΚΟΥ ΠΑΡΘΕΝΩΝΑ - STUDY FOR THE RESTORATION OF ΤΗΕ PARTHENON CELLA'S WEST WALL

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    HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE AND SPORTS THE ACROPOLIS MONUMENTS RESTORATION SERVISE PARTHENON RESTORATION PROJECT  LENA LAMBRINOU   ΜΑ  ,Historic Conservation, Univ. of York, Architect-Eng. NTUA, Archaeologist NKUA, YSMA VASILIS PAPAVASILEIOU Civil Engineer AUTH, YSMA OCTOBER 2013 ISBN 978-960-386-090-7 YSMA-ACROPOLIS' FELLOWS SOCIETY    10th PROJECT:  RESTORATION & CONSERVATION OF THE CELLA'S WEST WALL  - IMPLEMENTATION STUDY  10 ο  project : PARTHENON CELLA'S WEST WALL RESTORATION  –   THE IMPLEMENTATION STUDY 1 ABSTRACT 10th PROJECT: PARTHENON CELLA'S WEST WALL RESTORATION IMPLEMENTATION STUDY LENA LAMBRINOU   ΜΑ  , Historic Building Conservation, Univ. York, Architect- Engineer NTUA, Archaeologist NKUA, YSMA VASILIS PAPAVASILEIOU Civil Engineer  Α UTH, YSMA Section Α ' : The West Wall of the Parthenon Cella: Architecture, History, Restoration. Lena Lambrinou The west wall of the Cella of the Parthenon consists of the western limit of the building, inside the peristalsis, which contains the doorway into the Opisthodomos, the western compartment srcinally called the Parthenon (Dinsmoor 1950, 159, Ορλάνδος  1977/8, 258, 423) . The dimensions of the west wall are: length 19.20 m at the lowest part in the Cella’s interior; 18.45 m at the lowest part of the exterior between the two pillars; preserved height 12.45 m; width 2.053 m at the upper level of the orthostates and 2.045 m at the overlying first course. Note, however, that the width of the wall is difficult to measure with absolute accuracy, since the internal facade of the wall--after its defacement by the ancient fire--was recarved during ancient repairs. The west wall study comprises an inseparable part of the larger study of the Parthenon, although it has been listed as a separate project of restoration (10th Project) in the general charter of the intervention projects of 1983 ( Κορρές - Μπούρας  1983, 432, Korres 1985, 108). According to this listing, the west wall project includes the west wall, the area of the Opisthonaos and the medieval staircase. Restoration of the west porch is categorized separately as the 9th Project. The west or “doorway” wall of the Opisthodomos represents the  best preserved part of the Cella. Many of its historical phases are still being researched. The ruination of the building in the late 17 th  century and the clearing-out operations of the 19 th  century have contributed to limitations in evidence that could help to identify particular historical events that may have influenced the form of this area of the Parthenon during its long history. Among the historical events about which our knowledge is limited is the Parthenon’s severe destruction in late antiquity and its subsequent repair. The “ancient fire,” as it is commonly called, left many traces on the building. Subsequent repairs included the rebuilding of the west wall’s door frame with reused marble blocks from smaller monuments on the Acropolis.    10 ο  project : PARTHENON CELLA'S WEST WALL RESTORATION  –   THE IMPLEMENTATION STUDY 2 The latest and most destructive incident of the Parthenon’s history was the severe destruction of the late 17 th  century. This disaster in September 1687 resulting from a Venetian  bombardment became the epilogue for the Parthenon’s history as a functioning structure. After 1687, the ruined Parthenon was repaired again only in the middle of the 19 th  century and most likely at the beginning of the 20 th  century. As a result of the 1687 explosion, the west wall lost its upper part adjoining the roof structure, and suffered serious problems of surface loss. Nevertheless, it remained standing, in contrast to the Cella’s e ast wall, which collapsed in 1687. In 1872 a first attempt at consolidating the upper part of the west wall, specifically the lintel, was undertaken by the architect Panagis Kalkos. He constructed a low arch of industrial bricks to stabilize the srcinal parts of the lintel, which, having lost its middle-lower area due to the ancient fire, was preserved in a severely fractured condition. To gain access to ancient inscriptions, which had been built into the sides of the west wall’s doorway during the late antique repairs, archaeologists had long proposed the dismantling of the two side pillars of the door frame. They believed that the doorway’s repair dated to the Byzantine era, when the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church, and was thus not worth keeping. The extensive restoration of the Parthenon in the early 20 th  century by  Nikolaos Balanos provided the opportunity for this removal project. In 1926, Balanos received permission from the Ministry of Ecclesiastics and Education to dismantle the “Byzantine” door frame and to obtain the inscriptions. Also, he replaced Kalkos’ brick arch with a strong beam of reinforced concrete. Fragments of three of the four lintel architraves were dismantled and in their place was installed the huge concrete beam, thus unifying the lintel structure. This single concrete beam was aesthetically adequate for the era, while statically it has proven to be a sufficient solution lasting up to the present day. Disagreements, however, concerning Balanos’ solution for strength ening the lintel in the Parthenon’s west wall, arose, especially from foreign archaeological circles, soon after the construction had been completed. William Bell Dinsmoor, Sr. expressed his opposition, as did Gorham Phillips Stevens and Alan John Bayard Wace. Continued opposition to the material and the aesthetics of the new concrete lintel eventually led to calls for its replacement in the 1980’s. This replacement became the 10 th  of the 12  projects proposed for the Parthenon in 1983 by Manolis Korres and Charalambos Bouras (Korres-Bouras 1983). In 1994 a new study of the west wall by Korres proposed the replacement of the concrete lintel through the reuse of ancient fragments reinforced within a framework of titanium. The visible areas of the framework would be covered by marble slabs. Although these proposals were innovative, the difficulty inherent in the construction and use of such complicated frames, combined with the lack of possibility for adequate performance control and the unreliability of that control through time, gave rise to the need for a different restoration solution. Past experience gained from the reinforcement of long beams in the Propylaia has shown that the ability exists to successfully solve similar problems such as the reinforcement of the Parthenon’s western door lintel. The new proposal for the lintel in the Parthenon’s west wall follows the long-accepted method of combining new marble additions with a system of inserting titanium rods into the internal material of both srcinal and added beams, so as to  join new additions to ancient fragments.  10 ο  project : PARTHENON CELLA'S WEST WALL RESTORATION  –   THE IMPLEMENTATION STUDY 3 For the newly proposed operation, the upper parts of the west wall are to be dismantled. Some  preliminary rearrangement of the worksite in the Cella will be necessary for this project. Following this rearrangement, first, the eastern facade of the west wall should be documented using the photogrammetrical method. To obtain the necessary distance for measuring the wall, the modern metal structure housing workshops and conservation offices should be moved by sliding it eastward for a distance of 3 meters. Second, scaffolding should be erected to allow preliminary surface conservation. This operation is proposed in order to stabilize the surface of the west wall’s eastern facade, which is in very poor condition. Third, the main operation consists of dismantling and removing 19 blocks from the wall’s upper structure, as well as perhaps some of the blocks at the sides of the doorway. The existing concrete lintel will be cut with caution into parts, so as to be removed safely. The srcinal westernmost block of the lintel, which still remains in situ, was incorporated by Balanos into the replacement cement lintel. The surface of this srcinal member should be cleaned up, then the block taken down for structural repair.  New marble additions will be installed in the 20th course of the west wall’s internal area. These will serve as a solid bedding for three srcinal blocks, identified by Korres in 1994, which will now be positioned in the 21st course. Surface conservation of both faces of the west wall are proposed, along with limited interventions in lower parts of the wall The proposed project has a timetable of two years. The search for the new marble required for new additions to be added to the lintel’s two srcinal internal architraves has been underway since 2011 at the Dionysus Quarry on Mount Penteli. The structural restoration of these two internal architrave blocks is scheduled to be completed by mid-2014, while the start of the main project is slated to begin in early 2016. Section B': Structural Restoration Of Four Architectural Members from the Parthenon's West Wall Door Lintel. Vasilis Papavasileiou The present study aims to explore the possibility of restoring the four architectural members of the Parthenon’s west wall door lintel, with supplements of new marble connected with titanium rods. The fragments of three members (ΔΤΕ3.2, ΔΤΕ3.3, ΔΤΕ3.4) ar  e located on the worksite. Τhe westernmost of the four members (ΔΤΕ3.1) is in situ on the monument, integrated into the west wall’s present concrete lintel. To produce the geometry output of ΔΤΕ3.1 fragments, their representation by Prof. M. Korres, in "S tudy restoration of the Parthenon," Volume 4, pl. 11, has been used as design basis. For purposes of computation the methodology used for all Acropolis monuments restoration is applied. Each member is considered as an elastic isostatic beam (either simple supported, simple supported with overhanging, or fully supported) burdened with loads of the  proposed restoration. The stresses in particular sections (cracked sections) determine the necessary number of titanium bars.  10 ο  project : PARTHENON CELLA'S WEST WALL RESTORATION  –   THE IMPLEMENTATION STUDY 4 In order to describe better the stress state on fracture surfaces and the forces that the titanium rods can withstand, a three-dimensional model of each member was generated in a finite element program (SAP2000). The fragments of members ΔΤΕ3.2 and ΔΤΕ3.3, for example, were first scanned on the worksite, then a three-dimensional output for each one was created. In addition, using a CAD design program, the necessary new-marble supplements and a resolution grid have been designed for every member. The scans and three-dimensional visualizat ions of fragments were produced by YSMA’s surveyor Mrs. Artemis Valanis in 2011. The proposed provision for titanium rods is not binding on the application. The  present study provides insight into the number of titanium rods required, the stresses involved and the limits of safety. The actual number of titanium rods used, if any, will be finalized during the construction of supplement molds, in each of which may differ the number of rods needed, their positions within the particular section and the diameter and length of anchorages. Decisions on how to proceed appear to depend mostly on the number of supplements required and the direction in which the mending is done.
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