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    1 Phrase and clause are the most important elements of English grammar. Phrase and clause cover everything a sentence has. Clauses are the center of sentences and phrases strengthen the sentences to become meaningful. If the clauses are the pillars of a building, the phrases are the bricks. A phrase usually is always present within a clause, but a phrase cannot have a clause in it.  A phrase is a group of two or more words that does not have the subject and verb combination and does not form a predicate. It can contain a noun or a verb, but does not have a subject or predicate. Essentially, a phrase provides some sort of additional information or provides more context to the sentences you write. A phrase can never stand alone as a sentence; however, a phrase can nestle itself inside clauses that are either complete sentences on their own or ones that are dependent on the rest of the sentence. When a phrase is within a clause, it functions as a part of speech. Below are a few examples of a phrase: Example : 1. The dance was held at the reception hall. (“At the reception hall” is a prepositional phrase. It does not have a subject or predicate, and it cannot stand alone as a sentence.) Example 2 revisited: While she is dancing, the audience cannot tear its eyes off her. In Example 2 revisited, “off her” is a prepositional phrase that is nestled within the independent clause identified earlier. It does not contain a subject/predicate, nor can it stand alone as a sentence. Understanding the difference It is vital to understand the main differences between clauses and phrases to ensure your writing is clear in both construction and context. If you are unsure whether a group of words is a clause or phrase, break down the words into the parts of speech to help you decide. If there is a subject and a verb with a predicate, it is a clause. If there is a noun but no verb or a verb but no noun and does All About Phrases  Reading On The Move     2 not have a predicate, it is a phrase. Always keep in mind that sometimes phrases are built into clauses. Phrases : A. Noun Phrase Noun Phrase is between noun phrases (pronoun or number) and one or more modifier (c / determiner, adjective, participle). 1. Example : · My book · The next page · Someone special 2. Sentence phrase : · Are you waiting someone special ? B. Adjective phrase  Adjective phrase is a phrase that consists of an adjective and a modifier, determiner, and / or intensifier. 1. Example : · Angry with you · Very beautiful 2. Sentence phrase: · Never have I been angry with you C. Adverb phrase  Adverb phrase an adverb phrase consisting of the qualifier (c / too, very, so) or in the form of prepositional phrase or infinitive phrase. 1. Example : · Very good · During the hurricane 2. Sentence phrase : · The people couldn’t do anything during the hurricane      3 D. Prepositional phrase Prepositional pharase is a combination of the preposition with the object and functions as an adverb. 1. Example : · At school · Because of rain · Between you and me 2. Sentences phrase : · There is distance between you and me E. Infinitive phrase Infinitive phrase a combination of the infinitive and the object, which serves as a noun, adjective, or adverb. 1. Example : · To run through teh rain · To call him · To hear the news 2. Sentence phrase · The best time to call him is at night F. Gerund phrase Gerund phrase consists of the gerund and the modifier and / or noun (s), pronouns (s), or noun phrase, where the functioning as a noun. 1. Example : · His singing · Getting the best score · Giving bribes to win the election 2. Sentence phrase : · He should feel ashamed for giving bribes to win the election    4 G. Principal phrase Participial phrase is a combination of the participle (present or past participle) with modifier and / or complement. Its function as a verb [along the auxiliary form of progressive, perfect (continuous), and passive voice] or adjective. 1. Examlpe : · Playing basketball · Being parked there · Working in my room 2. Sentence phrase · Working in my room, I didn’t let someone else to disturb   H. Appositive phrase  Appositive phrase such as noun phrase, gerund phrase, or infinitive phrase that describes a noun or pronoun serves another. 1. Example : · A foremost scientist · The best-selling car in indonesia · Sailing across the ocean 2. Sentence phrase : · His hobby, sailing across teh ocean, takes a lot of time I. Absolute phrase  Absolute is a combination of a noun phrase / pronoun and participle with or without modifier. Its function is to explain the independent clause separated by commas. 1. Example : · His hands tugging on his mother’s shirttail  2. Sentence phrase : · His hands tugging on his mother’s sh irttail, the little boy asked his mother to buy a toy.
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