김제출장안마 ≪카톡 Nω30 ≫【김제출장샵】※홈페지;sod 27,NET※김제콜걸 #XX 김제출장안마 #XX 김제유흥업소 #XX 김제출장만남 #XX 김제출장업소 #XX 김제모텔출장

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  김제출장안마 ≪카톡 Nω30 ≫【김제출장샵】※홈페지;sod 27,NET※김제콜걸 #XX 김제출장안마 #XX 김제유흥업소 #XX 김제출장만남 #XX 김제출장업소 #XX 김제모텔출장 김제출장안마 ≪카톡 Nω30 ≫【김제출장샵】※홈페지;sod 27,NET※김제콜걸 #XX 김제출장안마 #XX 김제유흥업소 #XX 김제출장만남 #XX 김제출장업소 #XX 김제모텔출장 김제출장안마 ≪카톡 Nω30 ≫【김제출장샵】※홈페지;sod 27,NET※김제콜걸 #XX
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  A Look at Medieval Society from Its Lower Rungs by Lisa J. Steele Most of the images used in Fief  are woodcuts adapted from historicalsources. Several of these (as well as images used to create the book’ssilhouettes) were provided by ArtToday.com, an excellent clipartservice used by publishers worldwide. Give them a look!The text of Fief is Copyright ©1996, 2001 by White Rose Publishing,and is used under license. Index, srcinal visual elements, and pub-lisher's introduction Copyright ©2001 by Cumberland Games & Diversions. All Rights Reserved. Licensed users of this book mayprint unlimited copies for personal use only. Fief  is published by Cumberland Games & Diversions, 6503 Bluff Springs Road #1219, Austin, TX, 78744, United States of America.Visit us online at www.cumberlandgames.com This book is part of the All-Systems Library™ – CG&D gaming bookswithout ties to any single set of roleplaying rules. All-Systems booksfocus on details, characters, settings, and stories. We have All-Systems sourcebooks and adventure-collections in the works for fan-tasy, historical, space-adventure, modern action, and horror gaming.Watch our website, and write to let us know what you’d like to see! All-Systems Go! TM Researched and Written by Lisa J. Steele  Edited by Allen Wilkins Proofread by Glen Barnett, Max Belankov, andSteven A. Cook Indexed and Produced by S. John Ross, with addi-tional suggestions by the Cumberland Fire-Eaters. Original Images by S. John Ross With Thanks to Professor Lorraine Atreed,College of the Holy Cross; Stephen Swann, andAndrew Watt l bb Creativity, Unbound. TM All-Systems Go! Fief, by Lisa J. Steele  I. F UNDAMENTALS 5 T HE T HREE O RDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5F IEF , V ASSAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Rights and Duties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Getting a Fief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A Vassal of One’s Own. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Castellans and Bailiffs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Losing a Fief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8M ANOR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Assarts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9P ARISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Getting a Parish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Losing a Parish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10T HREATSTOTHE O RDER  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10M ONEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 II. A RCHITECTURE 12 C ASTLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Common Styles of Castles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Farnham’s Castle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 F ARNHAM , 13C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13C HURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Farnham’s Storage Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . 15 G RANGES , S TABLESAND T ITHE B ARNS . . . . 15H OUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15M ILLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Building Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 III. A GRICULTURE 17 S OIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17L AND D IVISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18P LOWSAND H ARROWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18S OWING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19F ERTILIZING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20H AYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20H ARVEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20S TORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21F AMINEAND F AILED H ARVESTS . . . . . . . . . 21I NVENTIONSAND I MPROVEMENTS . . . . . . . . 21 IV. F ORESTSAND W ASTE L ANDS 22 E NGLISH R  OYAL F ORESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22H UNTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Forest Fees and Fines (England) . . . . . . . . 23 V. G OVERNANCE 25 B YTHE L ANDHOLDER  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Account Rolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Sample Account Roll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Fees (England) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Sample Court Rolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 B YTHE C LERGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Penance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Sanctuary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30B YTHE V ILLAGERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Sample Penances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31,32 VI. H USBANDRY 33 F OOD A NIMALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33W ORK A NIMALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 VII. M ONOPOLIES 35 B REWING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35M ILLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36O VENS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Page 2 Table of Contents b  VIII. P OPULATION 37 S ERFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37P EASANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39C RAFTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39S ERVANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Crafter and Servant Wages (England). . . . 40 C LERGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Church Feasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Mass, Sacraments, and Rituals . . . . . . . . . 43Baptismal and Proprietary Churches . . . . . 44 Church Incomes and Expenses . . . . . . . . . . 45 Friars and Pardoners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Heretics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46N OBLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47T RAVELERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48H IDDEN P RESENCES : C ROWN ,L IEGEAND B ISHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 IX. S OCIETY 52 C HILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52C LOTHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53D IET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53I NHERITANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54M ARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56P LAGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57T OURNAMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57T RAVEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Tournament and War Expenses . . . . . . . 61,62 X. T AXES , T ITHES , AND T OLLS 63 T AXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 T ITHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64T OLLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 XI. T RADE 67 D EBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68L OCAL F AIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Fair Fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-74 XII. W ARFARE 75 A RMIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Summoning the Army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76L ANDHOLDER  ’ S O BLIGATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 76Scutage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77P EASANT ’ S O BLIGATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78Archers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Mercenaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Naval Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80S ERFS ’ O BLIGATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80B ANDITS , MERCENARIES , ANDFORAGINGPARTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80Robber Knights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80S IEGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Military Wages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82,83 Chevauchée . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83O N C AMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 XIII. D  ECLINEOFTHE M ANOR 84A PPENDIX 85 N ORMAN S ICILYAND I TALIAN S HARECROPPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85S HARECROPPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 T IMELINE 87S OURCES 90I NDEX 92 Fief: Table of ContentsPage 3 B  Page 4 A Word FromThe Publisher A  BOUT THE A UTHOR Lisa J. Steele is a criminal defense attor-ney and author based in Massachusetts.She represents clients accused of crimes ranging from minor trafficoffenses to capital murder. Ms. Steelehas been a game player and designer forat least 15 years. She is the author of  GURPS Cops (forthcoming from Steve Jackson Games), White Rose’s  Medieval France (unfortunately out of print), and a variety of articles in vari-ous gaming magazines and legal period-icals. Her personal interests range fromscience fiction to economics tomedieval history to firearms. If you’re like most readers, this is your first encounter with Fief  , LisaSteele’s primer on medieval life for fantasy gamers, SCA enthusiasts,and others interested in knowing what made society tick in the daysof crusading knights and the Black Plague.This is, however, a new, revised edition of what amounts to an“underground classic” of gaming – the kind of book that’s a jealous-ly-guarded secret of those few who’ve managed to locate it. The firstedition, a tape-bound book published by White Rose Publishing,appeared quietly, five years ago, distributed with elbow grease andaffection. I knew Lisa in those days from our mutual involvement inthe fan press, which made me one of the lucky handful aware of White Rose. Most gamers had never heard of the little New Englandcompany, and still haven’t.Now, I’m in the happy position of being able to share that secret,putting an excellent tool into the hands of Game Masters all overthe globe.Lisa’s work feels right at home at Cumberland. Like any other titlein the All-Systems Library, Fief  is rules-independent, focusingentirely on details that will open your eyes and fuel your imagina-tion, unencumbered by game-speak. That makes room for a lot of detail, and Lisa doesn’t skimp on the servings. Fief  is a  feast , andeveryone from the casual fantasy gamer to the seasoned medievalistwill find something worthy to chew on. My own contribution, exclu-sive to this edition, is a new index with over 1,300 entries. It saysmore about how much stuff  this book contains than any praise I canheap on it here. Enjoy. Fief  Version 1.02  f Austin, Texas, November 2001 a  T  HE  T  HREE  O RDERS Thisbook discusses life in England and northernFrance in the 9th to 13th centuries (9-13C) withsome digression into other countries and times. Itfocuses on the basic rung of that society: the knight’s fee or small landholding. The knight’s fee was hometo ninety percent of western European society at thetime – landholders, farmers, and village priests – alltrying to eke out a living based on farming and ani-mal husbandry. It was a precarious life threatened bypoor harvests, disease, wartime raids, oppressivetaxes and tithes, and ill fortune. It was also a stablelife, changing slowly over the course of centuries.The knight’s fee was an isolated place. Fewof its inhabitants had any reason to travelbeyond the nearest market town. Kings andbishops were distant figures; “histori-cal events” generally garbledrumor arriving months or years later.Although a knight’s feewas a small, closely knitworld, it was also a sociallystratified one. In 1030,Bishop Gerhard of Cambraitaught that humanity wasdivinely divided into threeestates: those who pray,those who labor, and thosewho fight. This providedan explanation for cus-toms evolved since thecollapse of the RomanEmpire. Although thelandholder on a smallknight’s fee might have anincome little larger thanthe wealthiest peasant onthe manor, he or she wasstill a landholder, a noble, with all the privilegesthat entailed. A priest, no matter how humble hisbirth, no matter how poorly he spoke Latin andknew scripture, was still ordained and separatefromall other classes.This book discusses the structures and customsof rural medieval society focusing on the basic ele-ments upon which the entire edifice of kings, cathe-drals, and castles were built. It draws together datafrom a number of specialized academic treaties andintegrates several disciplines. Readers interested indelving further should consult the works listed in Sources .  F IEF , V ASSAL “ Fief  ” is one of those words used in a variety of inconsistent ways. Medieval people used “fief” todescribe many kinds of property. They didn’t writeabout the “feudal system,” a term first used in1614, or “feudalism,” a term first appearing in19C. Modern academics often use “fief” todescribe land held by a subservient landhold-er ( vassal ) from a dominant landholder( liege ). The concept evolved in 16-18C based partly on a 12-13CLombard legal book called the Libri Fedruorum . Academics nowdispute whether the Libri reflected an ideal, or actualpractice.Medieval “fiefs” probablyevolved from benefices. A benefice was a grant of land bythe crown or clergy to alandholder for life, withlimited inheritance rights.In return, the vassal agreedto perform military service,instead of paying rent orperforming non-militarylabor. Counts and otherofficials received beneficesas part of their office. Whenthe Carolingian empire collapsed in late 9C, manybenefices merged with the office holder’s personaland family lands. Custom began to permit large fiefsto be inherited by right rather than by royal favor.Around 11C, this custom was extended to lesserfiefs.  Allods , conversely, were land held by the owner Page 5 I. Fundamentals s
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