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    The Localisation of Video Games Miguel Ángel Bernal-Merino A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of PhD Translation Studies Unit Imperial College, London 2013  ii Copyright Declaration   The copyright of this thesis rests with the author, Miguel Ángel Bernal-Merino, and is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial - No Derivatives licence. Researchers are free to copy, distribute or transmit the thesis on the condition that they attribute it, that they do not use it for commercial purposes and that they do not alter, transform or build upon it. For any reuse or distribution, researchers must make clear to others the licence terms of this work.  iii T HE L OCALISATION OF V IDEO G AMES   T ABLE OF C ONTENTS  A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS   vii A BSTRACT  viii D ECLARATION OF O RIGINALITY   Ix L IST OF F IGURES   x L IST OF T ABLES   xii L IST OF GRAPHS   xii L IST OF A CRONYMS   xiii C HAPTER 1-   I NTRODUCTION   1 1.1- About video games 4 1.2- About the goals of this research 6 1.3- About the structure of this PhD 7 C HAPTER 2-   G AMES ,   M ARKETS AND T RANSLATION 11 2.1- Towards a classification of terms relating to video game products 14 2.1.1- Comprehensive terms 14 Game 15 Electronic game 18 Digital game 19 Multimedia interactive entertainment software 19 Video game 21 2.1.2- Narrow terms 24 Location of play 25 Gaming platform 28 Mode of distribution 33 Type of market 35 2.2- The penetration of video games in today’s world 36 2.2.1- Mainstream games 37 2.2.2- Serious games 51  iv 3.1- Translation beyond the written text 77 3.2- The legacy of previous media 83 3.2.1- Children’s books and video games in translation 84 3.2.2- Comic books and video games in translation 92 3.2.3- Films and video games in translation 100 Film and video game subtitling 103 Film and video game revoicing 110 3.2.4- Utility software and video games in translation 116 3.3- A terminological maze: talking about language transfer 121 3.3.1- Localisation 123 3.3.2- Game localisation 127 3.3.3- Transcreation 129 3.3.4- Rewriting 133 3.3.5- Adaptation 136 3.3.6- Transadaptation 138 3.3.7- Audiovisual translation 140 3.3.8- A term for the translation of video games 141 4.2.1- In-game text 157 4.2.2- Voice-over and cinematics 162 4.2.3- Art 182 4.2.4- Glossaries and TMs 183 4.2.5- Packaging and promotion 186 2.2.3- Casual games 57 2.3- Game interactivity and translation 59 2.4- The link between playability and translation 67 C HAPTER 3-   T HE T RANSLATION OF M ULTICHANNEL T EXTS   73 C HAPTER 4-   T HE T RANSLATION OF M ULTIMEDIA I NTERACTIVE E NTERTAINMENT S OFTWARE  143  4.1- The internationalisation and mass production of video games 147 4.2- The multitextual reality of a complex product 152 4.3- In a class of its own 192
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