Heba Handoussa ã 2016 IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series in partnership with ECES: Cluster-based development in Egypt

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  IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series provides a platform for all people striving to identify and implement evidence-based policy solutions that sustainably reduce poverty and end hunger and malnutrition. The series is part of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded project called “Evaluating Impact and Building Capacity” (EIBC) that is implemented by IFPRI.
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  • 1. ElNidaa’s Experience with Cluster Development in Qena Prepared by Professor Heba Handoussa Managing Director of the Egypt Network for Integrated Development (ENID)
  • 2. Source: Egypt Makary Consulting, May 2016 Agricultural Production (17) Food Production (31) Wood Production (14) Paper and Printing (2) Leather Production (6) mining and Building materials (18) mineral production (8) Chemical Production (3) Textiles (46) Distribution of Clusters in Egypt Total of 145 clsuters
  • 3. Challenges to create a cluster: • Introducing new skills of high value added • Convincing community that work of girls is acceptable • Acupuncture to spread the message widely among village community • Space has a very high cost in rural Egypt (building is forbidden by law) • Idetifining Community leaders with good track recorks ( ElNidaa works with 50 NGOs out of a total of 700 NGOs across Qena)
  • 4. ENID/ ElNidaa initiative was started in April 2012 as a UNDP project. In11th of January 2016, El Nidaa has been registered under the name Egypt Foundation for Integrated Development (El Nidaa) (registration #759). Its objectives are: • Design of a national model for sustainable rural development with a number of successful pilots. • The status of Foundation El Nidaa will coexist alongside the current status as a UNDP project.
  • 5. El Nidaa is consolidating its knowledge on best practices for different activities in 45 different rural locations so as to create a Knowledge Platform to be tapped by youth and women. • Provide Feasibility studies for 45 viable business projects that are employment intensive as well as income generating in Agriculture, MSMEs and Services, • Act on behalf of young entrepreneurs and production cooperatives to identify markets at home and abroad and operate a “Fair Trade” website and e-shop. • produce policy briefs, case studies and documentation of its unique experience to encourage policy makers to scale up for MSMEs support in rural Egypt.
  • 6. El Nidaa now works in 42 villages and plans to reach 45 by end 2017. It took a minimum one full year of study in which market, technology and training requirements were determined. Over 4 years the cumulative number of beneficiaries is 4,431, out of which 1,477 have job opportunities. • The basic services 821 beneficiaries and created 36 jobs, • the MSMEs and entrepreneurship component 939 beneficiaries and created 724 jobs • the sustainable agriculture component has supported 2,671 beneficiaries and created 717 jobs.
  • 7. # ENID/El Nidaa OVOP Interventions Village District 1 Cut and Sew Gezeret Mottera, Abbassa, Al Makhzen, Al Rezka 2 Wood Turning and Arabesque Al Gamaleya 3 Wooden serving salad bowls Al Gamaleya 4 Brass Lighting Fixtures Al Shawareya 5 Copper & Metal Repoussé Al Khatara 6 Serma Embroidery Al Qoseir Bakhanis 7 Sculpting with Camel Bone Al Keratia 8 Khayameia (Patchwork) Al Ossayrat 9 Orientalist Painting Al Taramsa 10 Professional Painting Qena City 11 Jewelry and Fashion Accessories Dandara 12 Contemporary & islamic pottery Nag Al Awary 13 Glass Casting (Pate de Verre) Nag Al Awary 14 Mother of Pearl inlay Work Al Kalahin 15 Telly Embroidery Al Qaramta 16 Naqada Handloom Weaving Naqada 17 French Loom Embroidery Qena 18 Alabaster Sculptures Al Mostathmer 19 Leather Accessories Al Shaaneya 20 Kilims Al Qobeiba 21 Papier Maché Al Shaarany 22 Sand pottery technique Al Sheikh Ali 23 Ceramics and Stone wear Nag Al Awary 24 Cardboard boxes Al Rahmaneya 25 Carpentry Al Gamaleya 26 Lazer Cutting Qena 27 Oima Wood Work (sculpting) Al Gamaleya 28 Palm products Al Awsat Qamola Qous Qena Qena Naqada Farshout Qous Naqada Qous Nag Hamady Souhag/Sakolta Naqada Qena Luxor/Al Gorna Nag Hamady Qous, Abou Tesht Qous Qous Nag Hamady Naqada Dandara Qous Qous Qeft Abou tesht Qous Farshout Qena Qena ENID/El Nidaa OVOP interventions 2012-2016
  • 8. Three Specific Outcomes Expected • increased income for youth and women, • improved wellbeing for women and children • policy advocacy.
  • 9. • In 2012, El Nidaa undertook a full year of research into comparative advantage of various manufacturing activities that are suitable for SME development on both the cottage industry scale as well as the formal and larger factory scale. • In terms of selection of an appropriate social enterprise model, this was done in consultation with experts in rural development from UNDP, World Bank and IFPRI. • The crafts that were introduced and locations were selected based on Comparative Advantage analysis, research on best practices; village needs assessments and El Nidaa’s preparation of Qena Investment Plan.
  • 10. ElNidaa’s Business Model: Three I’s: Innovation, Integration and Inclusion. • Innovation is achieved through the introduction of new products, new technology and new markets. • Integration in the same location via parallel interventions in Basic Services, MSMEs and Agriculture. • Inclusion of the community is promoted through Needs Assessment, priority setting, participation (in cash or in kind) and Ownership. With This methodology, El Nidaa demonstrates the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in action – an integrated approach to local development, helping poor women and youth through skills, jobs and basic services thus contributing to their well-being.
  • 11. Moving From Workshop to factory As to the Factory-size manufacturing, two sectors were identified, wood products and Ready Made Garments (RMG). The decision was to gradually introduce first the cottage industry model with a number of workshops for each of the two sectors and introduce the necessary skills over 3 years. This is now to be followed by establishing medium- sized factories that built their success on the quality training of women and youth both via apprenticeship at the hands of highly skilled craftsmen as well as via formal technical industrial training of teachers in the relevant sector (wood and RMG) in the Technical Industrial Secondary Schools (catering for students 16 to 18 years old) in Qena.
  • 12. • El Nidaa’s goal is to develop, design and implement effective projects that are sustainable and replicable and address local challenges in an integrated strategy that has implications for the country’s reform policies. • Raising awareness on the project activities is key, targeting the development community, policy makers, and the general public through: – Policy briefs and case studies – Social Media – Press Releases Knowledge Dissemination & Advocacy
  • 13. Three Features have characterized El Nidaa’s approach: a) moved the jobs to the poorest hamlets and villages where women’s needs are greatest and their mobility a constraint b) it has shifted in favour of women jobs that were mostly the domain of men such as handicrafts and milk processing. C) it has also given special attention to maximizing its interventions in the Desert Fringe (‫صحراوى‬ ‫)ظهير‬
  • 14. The Furniture industry • The furniture industry is considered one of the best performing industrial sectors in Egypt. It was able to triple its exports from 2005 to 2015, while accommodating the growing local market demand. In fact 70 new exporters have emerged between 2005 and 2013 and are exporting steadily. The sector has around 120,000 establishments and 400,000 highly productive and skilled labor force representing 13% of the industrial workforce. • Information provided by the Egyptian Furniture Export Council (EFEC)
  • 15. Readymade Garments (RMG)sector: • The spinning, weaving and readymade garments (RMG) industry comprises about 30% (1.2 million workers) of all industrial workers in Egypt: RMG sub-sector produces the most value added and uses the least capital cost per job. • Current Egypt exports are USD 1.4 billion in 2015. • A comparative advantage including the relatively low labor costs. • There are a very limited number of manufacturing companies located in Upper Egypt . • There is a significant potential for developing a cost efficient labor base in Upper-Egypt, especially in the garmenting subsector.
  • 16. Beneficiaries • Selection criteria of beneficiaries are based on prioritizing those men and women who have never had the chance to work because of low skills. In our last two independent evaluations, nearly all the women have answered that they have never worked before when they were asked what your last job is. • The selection process of beneficiaries also encourages cooperation through collective work between women and youth from different ethnic and religious groups which performs the added value of providing space for more social interaction between groups from different backgrounds.
  • 17. El Nidaa’s Partnership with Ministries at Central and Local Levels • Agriculture • Industry • Social Solidarity • Local Development • Housing and Utilities • Education • Health • Environment • Planning • Tourism • Youth
  • 18. Design, Marketing and Sales • El Nidaa’s marketing strategy seeks to identify buyers, based on knowledge of production capacity and market characteristics for each product group. • The process consists of: – Market research to identify the market segment that El Nidaa will target – Product development by a group of in-house designers. – Testing the products in the market and assessing the consumers’ demand – Coordinate all marketing activities and the sale of products to businesses and customers at shops and in exhibitions as well as online (e-shop, social media, website)
  • 19. Program A: Upgrading basic services: • Combined Girls' Literacy Classes and Vocational Training workshops: Aims at raising socio-economic outcomes for young women through integrated intervention to empower Illiterate women, ages 18 to 30 in the poorest villages in Qena and qualify them to join the labor market and earn a decent wage. After finishing the literacy classes, the graduated girls join a sewing workshop. The vocational training workshops are not confined to training but extend to production. • Combined preschool and health awareness classes: Children who have attended preschools are generally more ready to learn, and stronger in their basic social, cognitive and emotional development. EL NIDAA model focuses on combining preschool education and healthcare. The classes have been equipped with the best educational tools and furniture according to the UNICEF model and healthcare for children is provided by outsourcing a pediatrician.
  • 20. Program B: MSMEs and entrepreneurship: • Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET): El Nidaa has implemented extensive ToT trainings. To date, 215 trainers from Qena’s 23 TVET industrial schools via the Industrial Training Center (ITC) were trained. Experience working with TVET schools on the ground has shown that the system can be reformed within a relatively short time frame. • Apprenticeship: El Nidaa engages in the One Village, One Product (OVOP) best practice model. Out of 25 OVOP villages, more than half are producing quality handicrafts that are being marketed for the upper segment of the Egyptian market and for export. Those trained are now earning a regular income and many are training new apprentices. Many will hopefully graduate into entrepreneurs.
  • 21. Program C: Sustainable Agricultural Development: • The overall objective of the Component is to simultaneously face the challenges of food and nutrition security and reducing poverty. The program offers interventions in Poultry and Goat raising, Milk processing, Roof gardens, Recycling agriculture residues, farmer field schools and TOT for agriculture TVET schools. It has also introduced innovative and high productivity fish farms. • The Sustainable Agricultural Development Component is implemented through close collaboration with a network of partners representing Government and Private sector institutes. Partners over the years have included The Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Agricultural Research Center as well as a number of universities and over 20 Community Development Associations in Qena.
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