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  eScholarship provides open access, scholarly publishingservices to the University of California and delivers a dynamicresearch platform to scholars worldwide. UCLA Encyclopedia of EgyptologyUC Los Angeles  Peer ReviewedTitle: Funerary Rituals (Pharaonic Period) Author: Hays, Harold Publication Date: 01-22-2010 Publication Info: UC Los Angeles, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Department of Near Eastern Languages andCultures Permalink: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1r32g9zn Citation: Hays, Harold. (2010). Funerary Rituals (Pharaonic Period). UC Los Angeles: UCLA Encyclopediaof Egyptology. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1r32g9zn Additional Info: Hays, Harold M., 2010, Funerary Rituals (Pharaonic Period). In Jacco Dieleman, Willeke Wendrich(eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. Keywords: death, Akh, Ka, sacrifice, Pyramid Texts, Coffin Texts, Book of the Dead, embalming,mummification, Hour Vigil, Procession to Abydos, Procession to Sais, Opening of the Mouth,mortuary cult, offering ritual, letters to the dead, judgment of the dead, Osiris, Horus, Isis,Nephthys, Seth, Anubis, Thoth, liturgy Abstract: <p>Upon death, the Egyptian was the object of a series of ceremonies performed by priestlyofficiants. The stages of the procedure largely correspond to the practical steps taken followingdeath. These were: taking the corpse to a place of embalming, the embalming itself, taking thecorpse to the tomb, and interment. The words and actions of the rituals superimposed upon thesepractical matters had a clear metaphysical purpose: funerary rituals were intended to elevate themortal to the superhuman.</p>    F UNERARY R  ITUALS (P HARAONIC P ERIOD  ) ازئجا   س ) ا   صا (  Harold M. Hays EDITORS  W  ILLEKE  W  ENDRICH   Editor-in-Chief University of California, Los Angeles  J  ACCO D IELEMAN   Editor  Area Editor Religion University of California, Los Angeles E LIZABETH F ROOD   Editor University of Oxford  J OHN B  AINES   Senior Editorial Consultant University of Oxford Short Citation: Hays 2010, Funerary Rituals (Pharaonic Period). UEE . Full Citation: Hays, Harold M., 2010, Funerary Rituals (Pharaonic Period). In Jacco Dieleman, Willeke Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology  , Los Angeles. http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/1r32g9zn http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/1r32g9zn1062 Version 1, January 2010    Funerary Rituals (Pharaonic Period), Hays, UEE 2010   1 F UNERARY R  ITUALS (P HARAONIC P ERIOD  ) ازئجا   س ) ا   صا (   Harold M. Hays Bestattungsrituale (pharaonisches Ägypten)   Rituels funéraires (Égypte pharaonique) Upon death, the Egyptian was the object of a series of ceremonies performed by priestly officiants. The stages of the procedure largely correspond to the practical steps taken following death. These were: taking the corpse to a place of embalming, the embalming itself, taking the corpse to the tomb, and interment. The words and actions of the rituals superimposed upon these practical matters had a clear metaphysical purpose: funerary rituals were intended to elevate the mortal to the superhuman. كا   هذھ   و   نا   يا   ةفو      كا      ج   نصا   ا   مةفا      م   ا   ا   تا      تاخ   ة    . ھ   تاا   هذھو :    فد   اخأو   ةا   ىإ   فا   ذخأ         طا      طا   ن   ىإ   جاةا   ىف   ىفا . ا   تاا   هذھ   بحص   ا   كا   هذھ   لفأو   ت   نا      قرخ   ضغ      ن ) زف ( ض      زئجا   سا   نأ   ثح   قرخ   نإ   م   ىإ   يش   م      فا   عفر .   pon death, the Egyptian was the object of a series of ceremonies performed by priestly officiants.  The stages of the procedure largely correspond to the practical steps taken following death. These were: taking the corpse to a place of embalming, the embalming itself, taking the corpse to the tomb, and interment.  The words and actions of the rituals superimposed upon these practical matters had a clear metaphysical purpose: funerary rituals were intended to elevate the mortal to the superhuman. Where best preserved and represented, the rituals make him out to be a god, specifically Osiris, and also to be an akh   (an exalted spirit; see Assmann 1989: 136 - 137), and one “true of voice” (  mAa xrw   ).  As to the social differentiation of funerary rituals, it is commonplace in Egyptological literature to mention a “democratization of the afterlife.” This is a historical model which supposes that in the earliest times, the Egyptians believed that a beatified afterlife  was accessible exclusively to royalty, and only in later periods to non-royal persons (Allen 2006; Assmann 2002a: 89; Breasted 1912: 272, 1933: 223 - 249; Kees 1926: 169 - 178; Moret 1922; Sethe 1931: 522; Sørensen 1989). But the premise of this model rests merely in an absence of Pyramid Texts in the tombs of elites in the Old Kingdom. Recent research has put forth evidence showing the model to be deeply flawed (see Mathieu 2004: 256 - 258; Nordh 1996: 168 - 172; Silverman 1996: 140 - 141; Willems 2008; see also Leclant and Labrouse 2006: 107 and fig. 4; and Baines and Lacovara 2002: 10). Since the Old Kingdom, the elite aspired to ascend to the great god after death and had the knowledge to get himself there; moreover, throughout the Pharaonic period and beyond, both elite and king used the same stereotyped scenes in U     Funerary Rituals (Pharaonic Period), Hays, UEE 2010   2 pictorial representations of mortuary service. In short, there is, after all, a fundamental commonality in belief and in practice, evident from even before the first attestation of the Pyramid Texts. Nevertheless, it must be borne in mind that the theoretical authorization for funerary rituals in all cases ultimately stemmed from the king and the gods (Assmann 1986a: col. 663; Hays fc.). Finally, note should be taken of the poverty of evidence outside that of the elite and royal strata (Baines and Lacovara 2002). Since death was one of the most powerful generators of Egyptian culture (Assmann 2000: 14 - 18; cf. Metcalf and Huntington 1991: 52), there is a wide variety of evidence related to Egyptian funerary rituals: textual, pictorial material, and architectonic. As ritual consists principally of speech and action, the first two kinds of sources are by far the most informative in terms of what was said and done during the rites. Therefore, the present entry relies mainly upon them. Painted and inscribed pictorial scenes of rites from funerary rituals appear in all periods of Pharaonic Egypt, from the Old through New Kingdoms. They occur principally in the cultic areas of tombs prepared for non-royal elite males, and such scenes usually cluster around cultic foci, above all, the false door.  They do appear elsewhere, notably in certain  vignettes in Books of the Dead   beginning in the New Kingdom. Also, there are scenes showing women as the principal object of precisely the same rites as for men (e.g., at Davies, Norman de Garis 1920: pl. 21, and Budge 1912: pl. 2). As one might expect, the data from a timespan of about a millennium and a half is not homogeneous: the activities represented differ in smaller and greater degrees over time (Altenmüller 1975b; Barthelmess 1992; Settgast 1963), with such differences presumably reflecting changes in practice. Also, since transport was involved, local topography must necessarily have had influence. Running counter to the impulse to show contemporaneous and local practice  were impulses of tradition and idealization (cf. Settgast 1963). Many texts giving information about funerary rituals are directly associated with the pictorial scenes. In the New Kingdom Theban tomb of Rekhmire and elsewhere, the longer hieroglyphic recitations embedded within the scenes and abutting them are often verbatim parallels of texts that were already ancient.  The parallels are from the mortuary literature, a principally textual tradition beginning in the Old Kingdom with the Pyramid Texts of kings and queens, and transmitted thereafter in the Middle Kingdom Coffin Texts and the New Kingdom Book of the Dead  . To be precise, the parallels are almost all from one of two categories of mortuary literature, namely, texts of a sacerdotal kind, i.e., those performed by priests for the deceased (Hays 2009). In contrast to the pictorial scenes, in most cases the mortuary literature occurs in the inaccessible portions of tombs - the sealed, below-ground burial chambers. But in Rekhmire’s cultic space and elsewhere, numerous Pyramid and Coffin Texts are placed alongside or are embedded within the scenes (Assmann 2005b: 59 - 146; Hays and Schenck 2007). Even so, the later, largely pictorial, material only tangentially overlaps the ancient textual material. For this and other reasons, Egyptological reconstructions of an entire funeral ritual from one or several pyramids’ texts are speculative and widely divergent from one another (see Barta 1981: 39 - 49).  Though details vary between different chronological periods, seven major complexes of funerary rituals may be discerned (see below). The following discussion gives a general account of the sorts of rituals performed for the dead, from death through interment and afterwards. It takes scenes from the first part of the 18 th  Dynasty as a point of reference, in particular those from the tomb of Rekhmire (see fig. 1). 1.   Procession to the Necropolis dw/rDjt r tA, zmA tA  “landing” 2.   Procession to the Embalming Place  prt Hr tA  “debarking” spr r zH-nTr   “approaching the God’s Booth”
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