Electro Convulsive Therapy & Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

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  ELECTRO CONVULSIVE THERAPY & TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION DHARMAWAN A. PURNAMA  PENDAHULUAN ã Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure, done under general anesthesia, in which small electric currents are passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a brief seizure. ECT seems to cause changes in brain chemistry that can quickly reverse symptoms of certain mental illnesses. ã ECT often works when other treatments are unsuccessful and when the full course of treatment is completed, but it may not work for everyone. ã Much of the stigma attached to ECT is based on early treatments in which high doses of electricity were administered without anesthesia, leading to memory loss, fractured bones and other serious side effects. ã ECT is much safer today. Although ECT still causes some side effects, it now uses electric currents given in a controlled setting to achieve the most benefit with the fewest possible risks.  ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT) CAN PROVIDE RAPID, SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENTS IN SEVERE SYMPTOMS OF SEVERAL MENTAL HEALTH CONDITIONS. ECT IS USED TO TREAT: ã Severe depression, particularly when accompanied by detachment from reality (psychosis), a desire to commit suicide or refusal to eat. ã Treatment-resistant depression, a severe depression that doesn't improve with medications or other treatments. ã Severe mania, a state of intense euphoria, agitation or hyperactivity that occurs as part of bipolar disorder. Other signs of mania includeimpaired decision-making, impulsive or risky behavior, substance abuse, and psychosis. ã Catatonia, characterized by lack of movement, fast or strange movements, lack of speech, and other symptoms. It's associated with schizophrenia and certain other psychiatric disorders. In some cases, catatonia is caused by a medical illness. ã Treatment-resistant hallucination ã Agitation and aggression in people with dementia, which can be difficult to treat and negatively affect quality of life. ã ECT may be a good treatment option when medications aren't tolerated or other forms of therapy haven't worked. In some cases ECTis used: ã During pregnancy, when medications can't be taken because they might harm the developing fetus ã In older adults who can't tolerate drug side effects ã In people who prefer ECT treatments over taking medications ã When ECT has been successful in the past  RISIKO DAN EFEK SAMPING ECT: ã Confusion. Immediately after treatment, you may experience confusion, which can last from a few minutes to several hours. You may not know where you are or why you're there. Rarely, confusion may last several days or longer. Confusion is generally more noticeable in older adults. ã Memory loss. Some people have trouble remembering events that occurred right before treatment or in the weeks or months before treatment or, rarely, from previous years. This condition is called retrograde amnesia. You may also have trouble recalling events that occurred during the weeks of your treatment. For most people, these memory problems usually improve within a couple of months after treatment ends. ã Physical side effects. On the days of an ECT treatment, some people experience nausea, headache, jaw pain or muscle ache. These generally can be treated with medications. ã Medical complications. As with any type of medical procedure, especially one that involves anesthesia, there are risks of medical complications. During ECT, heart rate and blood pressure increase, and in rare cases, that can lead to serious heart problems. If you have heart problems, ECT may be more risky.
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