Book Reviews – Buchbesprechungen – Analyses Bibliographiques: AYDIN, HAYRETIN, and REYHAN GÜNTÜRK. 2003. Adult Continuing Education in Turkey: Final Report on the Investigation into the Current Situation and the Potential for Development w

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  Book Reviews – Buchbesprechungen – Analyses Bibliographiques: AYDIN, HAYRETIN, and REYHAN GÜNTÜRK. 2003. Adult Continuing Education in Turkey: Final Report on the Investigation into the Current Situation and the Potential for Development with
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  BOOK REVIEWS – BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN – ANALYSES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES AYDIN, HAYRETIN, and REYHAN GU ¨ NTU ¨ RK. 2003.  Adult Continuing Educa-tion in Turkey: Final Report on the Investigation into the Current Situation and thePotential for Development with Particular Reference to Opportunities for German-Turk-ish and European-Turkish Cooperation . Bonn: The Institute for International Coopera-tion of the German Adult Education Association (IIZ/DVV). 85 pp. ISBN 3-88513-811-5.The present volume composes the 37th report in the series of   International Perspec-tives in Adult Education  published by the Institute for International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association. This series intends to contribute to thedevelopment of theory and practice and improve cooperation in adult education atthe international level.  Adult Continuing Education in Turkey  aims ‘‘to establish thecurrent situation of adult continuing education in Turkey  . . .  [and] the potential forcooperation with foreign, and particularly German partners’’ (p. 10). To achieve this,the authors have conducted several thematic interviews with representatives of adultcontinuing education in Turkey and in Germany. The report consists of an introduc-tory section and five short chapters. The former provides a general background onTurkey as well as on the aims, scope and method of the study. However, it lackssome important information about the study. A clearer description of the method,the data-collection procedures used, and a richer contextualization of the field studywould have been desirable.Chapter 1 portrays the development and the current situation of the Turkish edu-cational system. Although the report is specifically on adult continuing education,such a general overview familiarizes the uninformed reader in a helpful manner.Chapter 2 emphasizes the historical background, legal framework and providers andparticipants of adult continuing education in Turkey. As the authors make clear, theMinistry of National Education is responsible for all kinds of formal and non-formaleducational institutions, and the provision of education by other ministries and non-governmental organizations is subject to the approval of this body. Although stateadult continuing education institutions such as ‘adult education centers’ and ‘voca-tional training centers’ are the main providers, the contribution of non-governmentalorganizations has been steadily increasing since the mid-1980s. This section of thereport also features opinions of the interviewees on educational provision.Chapter 3 deals with the issues in current cooperation within Turkey itself andwith German and other foreign partners in terms of state and non-governmentalorganizations. Chapter 4 investigates the potential for further cooperation with stateand non-governmental organizations as well as with international continuing educa-tion establishments. The authors show that cooperation within Turkey is concen-trated on vocational education and that most joint ventures occur between theMinistry of National Education and non-governmental organizations. International Review of Education (2005) 51:235–255    Springer 2005DOI 10.1007/s11159-005-1866-0  Cooperation with German partners and international organizations is exemplifiedthrough specific projects such as a vocational training project with the German Fed-eral Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and a basic education project with UNI-CEF, among others. Given the scope of the study and the interviews conducted, onlythe most important and relevant state institutions and non-governmental organiza-tions are treated in these two chapters.Chapter 5 features the outcomes of a Workshop on the Future held in December2002 in Ankara to discuss the problems and shortcomings as well as expectations inadult continuing education establishments and cooperative efforts. Four proposalswere developed in this workshop to solve problems identified and to contribute tofurther development: expanding and raising awareness of Education for All; makingthe Institute of Adult Continuing Education operational; establishing an InternationalCentre for Information, Research and Mediation in adult continuing education; anddeveloping an effective model for cooperation in adult continuing education at thenational level.The authors provide a well-documented, albeit brief report on adult continuingeducation in Turkey and on efforts for cooperation at the national and internationallevel. In spite of some difficulties in comprehension presumably due to the translation(there are Turkish and German versions of the report as well), the report provides agood starting point for those who intend to initiate cooperation with Turkish stateand non-governmental organizations in adult continuing education.OZLEM UNLUHISARCIKLI Bogazici University BALA, HEIKE CATRIN. 2003. ‘‘ Remember for the Future’’. A Seminar on Methodsof Handling History  (International Perspectives on Adult Education 40). Bonn: IIZ-DVV. 120 pp. ISBN 3-88513-823-9.Fifteen youths and adult educators from six countries of Southeastern Europe wereinvited to Hattingen, Germany during 9–19 October 2002 to reflect on experiences of dictatorship under the National Socialist regime and in the German DemocraticRepublic and to share their thoughts on the ‘‘repression that had accompanied theestablishment of the socialist system in the 1950s’’ (p. 13). The present publication isthe report of the 10 days’ visit, discussion and reflection seminar.The youths, accompanied by four German partners, were seeking how to use visitsand interviews to reconstruct the past. The project, entitled ‘‘Remember For theFuture’’, was a bold initiative to encourage youths to confront history and speak outon various concerns and issues of the past as interpreted by the present generation. Itwas designed to move history-teaching ‘‘away from a focus on the teacher and thesubject-matter’’, as it ‘‘became more practise-based and learner-oriented’’ (p. 14). Theidea was to demystify the process of learning, teaching and writing history and bringit within the reach of local and ordinary people.The volume draws attention to an important methodology adopted by historianswho interview eye witnesses for evidence and visit places of remembrance in anattempt to understand the real past. The project also draws attention to the consciouseffort of historians to rise above prejudice and present objective analysis, inasmuch asthey attempt to identify ways of approaching history in a region which has experi-enced socialism, war and violence. 236  Book Reviews  Similar to the South African ‘‘Truth and Reconciliation Commission’’, this workhas done more than teach people about the value of memory by facing the issue of the past and dealing with it. Indeed, the project was a successful attempt at helpingpromote one of the pillars in the Delors’ Report on  Learning to Live Together , whichwas also the subject of the policy dialogue among the Ministers of Education assem-bled for the 46th Session of the International Conference on Education in Geneva inSeptember 2001. Visitors were reported to have succeeded in overcoming prejudices,finding a way of treating one another with trust, and listening to one another andgrasping each other’s point of view.As an attempt at promoting historical insights and demonstrating that historicalscholarship involves the critical use and authentication of documents, the publicationhas succeeded. However, the pursuit of truth in historiography goes beyond inter-views and visits, and can embrace additional alternative methods such as the use of autobiographies and biographies and the search for the evidence of srcinal manu-scripts in archives. A further limitation in the publication is the lack of informationon the selection process of the 15 wise boys and girls kept safe from those who weretoo bitter or reluctant to confront the situation before them.The project was also ambitious, as it seemed to have been guided by a pre-con-ceived notion of ‘one indivisible Europe’ of the past that was in search of its ownidentity. Perhaps this is one way to understand the aim spelt out in the Foreword tothe publication with these words: the ‘‘Europeans have always been close, eventhough they may have differed in their opinions. We must not forget that Europeanshave a common past and common root. Europe stands for an idea. This idea is a phi-losophy which has changed from epoch to epoch and has always been interpreted indifferent ways. What has remained is that we carry within us a common identity asEuropeans and that we pursue common aims’’(p. 7).The publication is a refreshing contribution to the promotion of history by theInstitute for International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association.This Institute has boldly supported, over the years, studies in International Perspec-tives in Adult Education, each of which has enriched our knowledge of the broadand fascinating subject of adult education. The foresight and commitment of theInstitute would explain why it continues to promote the increasingly neglected studyof history.MICHAEL A. OMOLEWA Nigerian Permanent Delegation to UNESCOParis KANDASAMY, MAHESWAR, and LIA BLATON. 2004.  School Principals: CoreActors in Educational Improvement – An Analysis of Seven Asian Countries . Paris:IIEP. 149 pp. ISBN 92-803-1254-5.This analysis of the work of school principals in seven Asian countries (Bangladesh,Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Sri Lanka) is basedon studies conducted by institutional members of the Asian Network of Training andResearch Institutions in Educational Planning. These studies were presented at a sem-inar entitled ‘‘Better School Management: The Role of the Head Teacher’’ held inShanghai in September 2000. To provide a context for the information presented inthe book, the first chapter starts by presenting data about human-development indi-cators in the countries participating in the seminar. This is followed by information 237 Book Reviews  about the administrative set-ups of the different education systems; their structure atthe pre-school, primary, secondary, and higher education levels; the distinctionbetween the private and the public sectors; and the level of expansion and quality of education. With regard to the latter, the authors provide information about publicspending on education, literacy rates, enrolment rates, number of schools, student/teacher ratios, and the number and characteristics of qualified teachers. Finally, theypresent statistical data about head-teachers broken down by gender and qualifica-tions.The second chapter elucidates the roles and functions of head-teachers by focusingon management of schools at the local level and the role of head-teachers in person-nel, student, financial, and curriculum management. Additionally, it describes theteaching responsibilities of head-teachers, their role in making instructional materialsavailable in their schools, and their responsibilities for school buildings. Finally, itdescribes the strategies used by head-teachers to involve school staff in major deci-sions through staff meetings and in the school development plan.The third chapter is dedicated to the management of head-teachers, with emphasison procedures used for recruitment of head-teachers and the overall responsibilitiesfor appointing them, financial matters related to the position of head-teacher, andposting and transfer practices, along with a description of the approaches and oppor-tunities for career development, training, and support of head-teachers.The next chapter is dedicated to identifying the problems that head-teachers facein their schools and the innovations being implemented in a number of countries.Many of the problems are specific to certain countries, such as shortage of elementaryteachers in Bangladesh, the pressure arising from new roles and functions of head-teachers in Korea, lack of pre-service training of head-teachers in Nepal, and inade-quate financial resources in the Philippines. However, the lack of autonomy andsupport, the traditional nature of the work of the head-teacher, and the relations of head-teachers with the local community seem to be common problems among all thecountries involved in the studies. The innovations highlighted in this chapter includedeveloping work-plans to streamline school activities and provision for managementtraining of head-teachers in Bangladesh, lowering the retirement age of principals andcompetency-based promotion in the Republic of Korea, and using a new paradigm intraining programs aimed at improving the qualifications of head-teachers in Malaysia.Innovations underscored in Nepal included the introduction of community-based edu-cational management systems and resource centers, while Pakistan’s innovationsincluded the development of a long-term national educational plan and improvementsin training systems. In turn, the Philippines improved its training by introducing newprograms and attempting to refocus the funding priorities of local education boards,while Sri Lanka introduced performance appraisal for teachers and principals, movedtoward more school autonomy, and encouraged the development of proposals tostructure the selection and training of head-teachers and other administrators.This volume provides a wealth of information about the different facets of theeducational systems of seven Asian countries with different levels of development.However, in-depth analyses of the findings are almost wholly absent, even though thecomparative nature of the data lends itself to such analyses.The information presented in the book is important for interested readers becauseit may provide insights about a variety of issues related to the work of head-teachers.What is appealing about the results of the studies presented here is the similarities of problems faced by the various countries which have different economic and culturalbackgrounds. Two of the identified common problems have to do with the lack of autonomy and support and the traditional nature of the work of the head-teacher;issues that might be associated, to some degree, with the nature of centralized educa-tional systems that attempt to control school activities from afar at a time when 238  Book Reviews  school-based management may be a more reasonable approach to encourage innova-tion. The dilemma is that relations of head-teachers with the local community, one of the methods that can be used to reduce central control, is also one of the commonproblems. This dilemma may be the result of a conflict between the culture of innova-tion and well-established school and administrative culture.The lack of analyses transforms the volume into a very useful encyclopedia of theeducational systems of the seven countries that participated in the studies. What wasneeded was scrutiny of the results focused on providing readers with lessons learnedfrom comparing and contrasting structures, processes, problems, and innovation inthe context of the background information presented in the first chapter. Anotherlevel of analysis could have involved relating the findings from the studies to findingsfrom international studies on similar topics, with a view to concluding with lessonslearned from such comparisons – lessons that may be useful to readers not only fromAsian countries but from around the world.SAOUMA BOUJAOUDE American University of Beirut KELL, PETER, SUE SHORE, and MICHAEL SINGH. 2004.  Adult Education @21st Century.  New York: Peter Lang. 299 pp. ISBN 0-8204-6110-5.Three initial misunderstandings need to be cleared away before approaching thisbook. The first relates to its provenance. Australia is rapidly becoming the front lineof educational thinking and practice, especially in adult education and literacy – andthis is where the thinking behind the book comes from. The editors claim that it is atruly world-wide study, but more than half of its 17 chapters come from Australiaand the others from a small number of other regions: Canada, Germany, Norway,and Malaysia (four chapters).Second, the title of this book led me to assume that it is all about adult educationand the new technologies. It is not – it is far more important than that. There aresome later chapters about information and communication technologies, but theseare not the most significant parts of the book.Finally, its opening statement indicates that its focus is adult vocational education.And at times it tends to assume that adult education is vocational. But the scope of the book is far wider than that. It has a strong concern for ‘‘indigenous and commu-nity languages’’ (p. xi); it includes discussions of ‘‘development education, peace edu-cation, human rights education, education for a democratic society, interculturaleducation, ecumenical or multi-faith religious education, and ecological education’’(p. 22). There is a great deal on adult literacy education. It sees adult education asbeing more of social value than economic value (although it pays its dues to both).What then is this work all about? Its primary concern is with ‘‘the materialistimperative’’ of globalisation and the possibility of adult education as a site of resis-tance, despite the threat that ‘‘legitimate sources of opposition are being identified as‘terrorist organizations’’ (pp. xi, 67). The modern world faces many threats, especiallythat of globalisation. Globalisation threatens ‘‘the sustainability of [the] world’s eco-logical and linguistic diversity’’ (p. xix), among other things. ‘‘What is the role of adult education under conditions of incessant political and economic crises that threa-ten prospects for democratic life throughout the world?’’ (p. 15). ‘‘Does adult educa-tion contribute to the disaster or does it work, with others, to mediate and mitigateit?’’ (p. 9). ‘‘Adult education should move against the tide, and learn from history’’ 239 Book Reviews
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