Analysis of Accommodation Facility Service Quality Aspects and Students’ Satisfactory Level

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  1. Analysis of Accommodation Facility Service Quality Aspects and Students’ Satisfactory Level Navodi Gimhani Peiris 120457 Tharindu Chathuranga Dodanwala 120339 Roman…
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  • 1. Analysis of Accommodation Facility Service Quality Aspects and Students’ Satisfactory Level Navodi Gimhani Peiris 120457 Tharindu Chathuranga Dodanwala 120339 Roman Man Shrestha 120294 Nischaya Sedai 120459 Samrakshya Karki 120322
  • 2. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Problem Statement 1.3 Objective of the Study 1.4 Scope and Limitations 2
  • 3. Background • Facilities defines organizations quality towards both employees and customers FACILITIES Physical Facilities Services 3
  • 4. Problem Statement • Presence of the support services are essential towards the realization of core activities • Universities in the Asian region tend to care less about the accommodation facility services 1. Identify the factors affecting accommodation service quality in AIT 2. Analyze a relationship between student satisfaction and accommodation service quality factors Objective of the Study 4
  • 5. Scope and Limitations 1. The interviews and data collection are done in Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand. 2. Only students from AIT have been considered for the study. 3. The study is limited only for accommodation facilities. 5
  • 6. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Facility Management 2.3 Facilities in Universities 2.4 Accommodation Facility Management Services 2.5 Customer Satisfaction Measure 6
  • 7. Introduction • Facility management services in universities are crucial to upkeep the quality of the university. • In 1999, Reeves stated that facility management industry as one of the fastest growing sectors in the final decade of the last millennium. Facility Management • It is the organization's facility management and maintenance process. • Facilities include office complexes, physical resources of the company or the site and other mechanical and electrical services that may result in health or safety hazards to employees. • The facility management team must ensure functionality of all facilities of the organization and observe occupational health and safety regulations. 7
  • 8. Facilities in Universities • A university, like any other organization, is trying to improve efficiency against increase in operating costs and user search expectations (Varcoe, 1995) • Private university have a greater range of different types of buildings with more varied operational needs like most other organizations. • The facility management services in universities are divided into four categories. 1. Education facility management services. 2. Administration facility management services. 3. Accommodation facility management services. 4. Communal facility management services. 8
  • 9. Accommodation Facility Management Services • Accommodation management is typically associated with the hotel and related sectors. • Where some form of semi-private space is effectively rented from a vendor, by a guest/customer for a defined period. 9
  • 10. Customer Satisfaction Measure • Customer satisfaction is a measure of company performances according to customer needs (Hill, et al., 2003). • Two basics concepts; 1. The expectations, which represent what customers expect from the service. 2. The perceptions, which represents what customers receive. • Expectations are evaluated by the customers through the indication of a level of importance. • Perceptions are evaluated by a judgement of satisfaction. • Customer satisfaction can be evaluated by collecting only customer perceptions, or through the comparison between expectations and perceptions (Parasuraman, et al., 1985). 10
  • 11. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Framework 3.2 Grounded Theory 3.3 Quantitative Analysis 11
  • 12. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK 12
  • 13. Literature Review: FM services FM in universities Accommodation facility management services Customer satisfaction measures Development of semi- structured interview questions Conducting interviews Open coding Axial coding GroundedTheory 13
  • 14. Construct validity Regression analysis Pilot test Instrument reliability testing Expert Selection Content Validity Questionnaire development Descriptive Statistics Questionnaire reliability testing Conclusion Recommendations for further studies QuantitativeAnalysis 14
  • 15. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS 15
  • 16. Grounded Theory • The theory that was derived from data, systematically gathered and analyzed through the research process • The advantages of the procedure development 1. The procedure indicated the procedures and general rules to be followed as well as research instrument that were used 2. Preparation of the procedures encouraged the researcher to anticipate several problems and prepare the mitigation ways 3. The procedure increases the research reliability by controlling the researcher to keep on track 16
  • 17. Semi Structured Interviews Interviews Structured Interviews Semi-structured Interviews Narratives Interviews • Criteria: 1 or more than 1 year inside AIT 17
  • 18. Open Coding • Breaking down the key points of text from the interviews into unit of meaning and these units were named • The process of constant comparative method was used when every new data was collected • Codes were grouped and labelled according to its properties and dimensions • Each label provides the meaning of all these codes in the abstract view 18
  • 19. Axial Coding • The process of linking categories to subcategories at the level of properties and dimensions • Subcategories provide method, concept, which emerge in open coding are grouped and linked to one another in terms of properties and dimensions 19
  • 20. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 20
  • 21. Content Validity • Degree to which a test or tool can measure what the research wants to correctly measure in an intended content area 𝐶𝑉𝑅𝑖 = 𝑛 𝑒 − ( 𝑁 2 ) ( 𝑁 2 ) • CVR ranges from -1 to +1 • Closer to 1 means, the item is necessary Where: 𝐶𝑉𝑅𝑖 - Content Validity Ratio (CVR) value for the ith measurement item 𝑛 𝑒 - No of experts indicating measurement item “Significant” N - Total no of experts in the panel 21
  • 22. Questionnaire Design and Data Collection • Questionnaire is the medium of communication between the researcher and the respondents • Close ended questions were applied • A 5-point Likert scale was used 1- - Very Bad 2- - Bad 3- - Neutral 4- - Good 5- - Very Good 22
  • 23. Reliability Testing • Estimates the consistency of the measurement or the degree to which an instrument measure the same way in each time • Cronbach’s alpha approach is applied because it determines how all items on a test related to all other test items and the total test ∝= 𝑁 𝑁 − 1 (1 − Σ 𝑆𝑖 2 𝑆 𝑇 2 ) • Acceptable criterion: alpha should be at least 0.7 Where: N - No of items or questions in scale Σ 𝑆𝑖 2 - Summation of variance for each team 𝑆 𝑇 2 - Variance of question 23
  • 24. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) • Fundamental assumption: “some underlaying factors, which are smaller number than the number of observed variables, are responsible for the covariation among the observed variables” 𝐾𝑀𝑂 = 𝑖≠𝑗 0 Σ𝑟𝑖𝑗 2 𝑖≠𝑗 0 Σ𝑟𝑖𝑗 2 + 𝑖≠𝑗 0 Σ𝑎𝑖𝑗 2 • KMO value should be higher than 0.5 Where: ΣΣ - Sum overall items in the matrix when item i not equal to item j rij - Pearson correlation between i and j aij - Partial correlation coefficient between items i and j 24
  • 25. Multiple Linear Regression • Used to investigate relationship between the quality aspects of accommodation with students’ satisfaction on accommodation 𝑌 = 𝛽0 + 𝛽1 𝑋1 + 𝛽2 𝑋2 + ⋯ + 𝛽 𝑘 𝑋 𝑘 Where: Y - Dependent variable 𝛽 𝑘 - Coefficient 𝑋 𝑘 - Independent variable 25
  • 26. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis 4.2 Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis 26
  • 27. QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 27
  • 28. Open Coding • Open coding is the analytic process through which concepts are identified and their properties and dimensions are discovered in data • It is started with breaking down the key points of text from the interviews into unit of meaning and these units were named • No. of Experts: 10 • Experts criteria: Living in AIT dorms for more than 1 year 28
  • 29. Open Coding (Continued) Respondent ID Key statement Code R1/1 Cleaning staff provide satisfactory cleaning services Attitude and professionalism of cleaning staff R1/2 Maintenance staff work fast Attitude and professionalism of maintenance staff R1/3 I don’t like the bathroom quality Bathroom fittings R1/4 They should extend the time on their cashier till 4:30 Payment process for the dorm room R1/5 I’m fine by my room Overall, I am satisfied with my room R2/1 It’s hard to explain something to the cleaning staff and get the cleaning done Communication skills of the cleaning staff R2/2 Cleaning staff doesn’t clean properly Attitude and professionalism of cleaning staff R2/3 The big lady in the administrative staff is rude and is not acting the way of a professional Attitude and professionalism of administrative staff R2/4 I Find administrative staffs very polite I get along with administrative staff R2/5 We cannot complain our needs on weekends Weekend holiday policies R2/6 Lights in the corridors are not enough and some lights are not working. Lights in dorm corridors R2/7 Once a week cleaning is not enough Cleaning process in the dorm unit 29
  • 30. Respondent ID Key statement Code R2/8 Sometimes, I don’t feel secure in my room sometimes Dorm security R3/1 Cleaning staff is fast and good Attitude and professionalism of cleaning staff R3/2 Maintenance staff is knowledgeable at what they do (AIT send them according to the need) Attitude and professionalism of maintenance staff R3/3 Maintenance staff has reasonable English knowledge compared to cleaning staff Communication skills of the maintenance staff R3/4 Administrative staff is cooperative Attitude and professionalism of administrative staff R3/5 The room size is enough for one person Room size R3/6 Have decent number of windows Room ventilation R3/7 Strict towards pet adoption Pet rules R3/8 I like my room Overall, I am satisfied with my room R3/9 I prefer the view from balcony Dorm surrounding landscape R3/10 Deep cleaning should be done more frequently Cleaning process in the dorm unit R4/1 Cleaning staff is good Attitude and professionalism of cleaning staff Open Coding (Continued) 30
  • 31. Respondent ID Key statement Code R4/2 Maintenance staff is good Attitude and professionalism of maintenance staff R4/3 Administrative staff is good Attitude and professionalism of administrative staff R4/4 Dorm exterior look old Dorm exterior condition R4/5 The room is good and filled with decent amount of stuff. Room furniture R4/6 The room size is spacious. Room Size R5/1 They are polite and trustworthy. Attitude and professionalism of cleaning staff R5/2 I think its small and suffocating. Room size R5/3 The bathroom fittings are old and rusty. Bathroom Fitting R5/4 They are very strict and give unnecessary trouble to student. Unnecessary rules and regulation. R5/5 it is very slow and time consuming in terms of maintenance. Maintenance process of the dorm unit. R5/6 I like my room. Overall Satisfaction of the room. R6/1 Accommodation staffs are polite. Attitude and professionalism of administrative staffs. Open Coding (Continued) 31
  • 32. Respondent ID Key statement Code R6/2 I think there are less furniture then the student needs. Room Furniture. R6/3 There must be online payment system Payment process for the dorm. R6/4 I am satisfied Over all I am satisfied with my room. R6/5 I like chilling in my room. Like to stay in the room. R7/1 It’s difficult to communicate with the cleaning staffs Communication skills of the cleaning staffs. R7/2 There is always delay in maintenance due to difficulty in communication. Communication skills of maintenances staffs. R7/3 I feel the lighting is not sufficient. Lights in dorm corridors. R7/4 There is not enough air flow in my room. Room Ventilation R7/5 I think the rules and regulation are for the students and they are working well. I am satisfied with the service. R7/6 I think the payment process is time consuming. Payment process for the dorm room R8/1 I think the administrative staffs are cordial and friendly. Attitude and professionalism of administrative staffs. R8/2 I like to spend quality time in the dorm. Overall, I am satisfied with my room. Open Coding (Continued) 32
  • 33. Respondent ID Key statement Code R8/3 I think the CC cameras are not working in my Dorm. I don’t feel secured in my room. R8/4 I think deep cleaning should be done more often. Cleaning process in the dorm R8/5 It is very difficult and time consuming to change my room. Room Changing process. R8/6 Dorm surrounding is not cleaned most of the time. Cleaning process around the dorms R9/1 It is difficult to talk to the cleaning staffs. Communication skill of cleaning staffs. R9/2 There is a threat of snakes and bats in the balcony. Dorm Surrounding landscape. R9/3 I am comfortable and like to spend rest of my time in my room. I would like to spend rest of my time I AIT in my current Room. R9/4 There is no provision for living together with boyfriend. No Provision of living together in dorm. R10/1 I like the friendly nature of administrative staffs. Communication of Administrative staffs R10/2 I like the way the cleaning staff clean my room. Cleaning Process around the dorm. R10/3 I am satisfied to say most part of my day in my room Overall, I am satisfied with my room. R10/4 I don’t like the size of my room. Room size R10/5 There should be online payment process. Payment process for the dorm. Open Coding (Continued) 33
  • 34. Axial Coding Quality of the staff Attitude and Professionalism of Cleaning staffs. R1/1, R2/2, R3/1, R4/1, R5/1 Attitude and professionalism of maintenances staff R1/2, R3/2, R4/2 Attitude and Professionalism of administrative staffs R2/3, R3/4, R4/3, R6/1, R8/1 Communication skills of cleaning staff R2/1, R7/1, R9/1 Communication skills of maintenance staff R3/3, R7/2 Communication skill of administrative R10/1 34
  • 35. Dorm quality Room size R3/5, R4/6, R5/2, R10/4 Dorm exterior condition R4/4 Room Furniture R1/3, R4/5, R6/2 Dorm Security R2/8 Bathroom fitting R5/3 Room Ventilation R3/6, R7/4 No provision of living together in the dorm R9/4 Lights in dorm Corridors R2/6, R7/3 Dorm surrounding landscape R3/9, R9/2 Axial Coding (Continued) 35
  • 36. Quality of the working procedures Room changing process R8/5 Pet rules R3/7 Payment Process for the dorm room R1/4, R6/3, R7/6, R10/5 Cleaning Process in the dorm Unit R2/7, R3/10, R8/4, R10/2 Unnecessary rules and regulation. R5/4 Maintenance process of the dorm unit R5/5 Weekend holiday Policy R2/5 Cleaning process around the dorms R8/6 Axial Coding (Continued) 36
  • 37. Satisfaction I would like to spend rest of my time in AIT in my current room R9/3 I don’t feel secured in my room R8/3 I am satisfied with the services, I get for the amount I pay R7/5 I get along with the staff R2/4 Like to stay in the room. R6/5 Overall, I am satisfied with my room R1/5, R3/8, R5/6, R6/4, R8/2, R10/3 Axial Coding (Continued) 37
  • 38. QUANTITATIVE DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 38
  • 39. Introduction • This section describes the quantitate research approach that aimed to improve the rightness of the results of the qualitative study. • This section begins with explaining the results of experts’ content validation • After that, reliability of the instrument was analyzed. • Finally, the data analysis through statistics methods were explained. 39
  • 40. Experts’ Content Validity Using Lawshe’s Approach • Sample size: 15 experts • Critical CVR value: 0.49 Removed Factors Item CVR value Dorm exterior condition 0.333 Dorm Security 0.467 No provision of living together in the dorm -0.333 Pet rules -0.2 Unnecessary rules and regulation 0.2 Weekend holiday Policy -0.6 I don’t feel secured in my room 0.067 Like to stay in the room 0.2 40
  • 41. Instruments’ Reliability Test • Cronbach’s Alpha test • Sample size: 15 • Criteria: Cronbach’s Alpha > 0.7 Cronbach’s Alpha Cronbach's Alpha based on standardized items No of items 0.946 0.949 21 41
  • 42. Description of Respondents • Population: 1620 • Sample: 124 Profile Category Frequency Percentage (%) Cumulative percentage (%) Gender Male Female 72 52 58.1 41.9 58.1 100 Study program Bachelor’s Degree Master’s Degree PhD Other 3 104 16 1 2.4 83.9 12.9 0.8 2.4 86.3 99.2 100 Room type Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Student village 17 8 16 16 28 2 37 13.7 6.5 12.9 12.9 22.6 1.6 29.8 13.7 20.2 33.1 46.0 68.5 70.2 100 42
  • 43. Questionnaires’ Internal Reliability • Cronbach’s Alpha test • Sample size: 124 • Criteria: Cronbach’s Alpha > 0.7 Cronbach’s Alpha Cronbach's Alpha based on standardized items No of items 0.923 0.925 21 43
  • 44. Grouping of Accommodation Facility Services Quality Aspects • Analysis method: Exploratory Factor Analysis • Check 1: Kaiser-Meyer Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett's Test • Conclusion 1: Factor analysis is an appropriate technique Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0.829 > 0.5 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 1128.671 df 136 Sig. 0.000 > 0.05 44
  • 45. Grouping of Accommodation Facility Services Quality Aspects (Continued) • Check 2: Dimension creation test and parallel analysis • Conclusion 2: Two components Total Variance Explained Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 6.876 40.446 40.446 6.876 40.446 40.446 2 1.788 10.515 50.961 1.788 10.515 50.961 3 1.424 8.377 59.338 1.424 8.377 59.338 4 1.053 6.192 65.530 1.053 6.192 65.530 5 1.006 5.916 71.446 1.006 5.916 71.446 6 0.780 4.586 76.033 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Component Mean Eigenvalue Percentile Eigenvalue 1 1.691945 1.821001 2 1.537590 1.640883 3 1.426296 1.507169 4 1.334347 1.396708 5 1.251514 1.316399 45
  • 46. Grouping of Accommodation Facility Services Quality Aspects (Continued) • Check 3: Communality data test • Criteria: Extraction > 0.4 Code Item Name Initial Extraction A1 Attitude and professionalism of cleaning staff 1.000 0.771 A2 Attitude and professionalism of maintenance staff 1.000 0.808 A3 Attitude and professionalism of administrative staff 1.000 0.743 A4 Communication skills of the cleaning staff 1.000 0.856 A5 Communication skills of the maintenance staff 1.000 0.852 A6 Communication skills of the administrative staff 1.000 0.637 A7 Room size 1.000 0.770 A8 Room furniture 1.000 0.652 A9 Bathroom fittings 1.000 0.656 A10 Room ventilation 1.000 0.635 A11 Lights in dorm corridors 1.000 0.597 A12 Dorm surrounding landscape 1.000 0.576 A13 Room changing process 1.000 0.765 A14 Payment process for the dorm room 1.000 0.823 A15 Cleaning process in the dorm unit 1.000 0.556 A16 Maintenance process of the dorm unit 1.000 0.787 A17 Cleaning process around the dorms 1.000 0.66346
  • 47. Grouping of Accommodation Facility Services Quality Aspects (Continued) • Check 4: Rotated component matrix • Criteria: Factor loading > 0.45 Item Component 1 2 A7 0.773 A8 0.742 A12 0.659 A17 0.634 A11 0.620 0.376 A10 0.607 A9 0.588 0.431 A15 0.523 A13 0.427 A14 0.351 A5 0.830 A4 0.759 A3 0.366 0.732 A6 0.717 A1 0.374 0.670 A2 0.652 A16 0.570 0.618 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a. Rotation converged in 3 iterations. 47
  • 48. Grouping of Accommodation Facility Services Quality Aspects (Continued) • Quality of students’ accommodation facility services = 6.876F1 + 1.788F2 • F1 = 0.255A7 + 0.212A8 + 0.113A9 + 0.171A10 + 0.136A11 + 0.22
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