A descriptive study on the use of Cooperative Learning as an instructional tool for 1 st graders at Centro Educativo Nueva Generación, Heredia, 2018

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  Estimados usuarios. Bienvenidos a nuestro sitio virtual de la UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER en Slide Share donde podrá encontrar los resultados de importantes trabajos de investigación prácticos producidos por nuestros profesionales. Esperamos que estos Mares Azules que les ponemos a su disposición sirvan de base para otras investigaciones y juntos cooperemos en el Desarrollo Económico y Social de Costa Rica y otras latitudes. Queremos ser enfáticos en que estos trabajos tienen Propiedad Intelectual por lo que queda totalmente prohibida su reproducción parcial o total, así como ser utilizados por otro autor, a excepción de que los compartan como citas de autor o referencias bibliográficas. Toda esta información también quedará a su disposición desde nuestro sitio web www.umagister.com, Disfruten con nosotros de este magno contenido bibliográfico Magister esperando sus amables comentarios, no sin antes agradecer a nuestro Ing. Jerry González quien está administrando este sitio. Rectoría, Universidad Magister. – 2016.
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  • 1. UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER FACULTAD DE EDUCACIÓN CARRERA DE LICENCIATURA EN LA ENSEÑANZA DEL INGLÉS MEMORIA DE SEMINARIO DE GRADUACIÓN PARA OPTAR AL GRADO DE LICENCIATURA EN LA ENSEÑANZA DEL INGLÉS “A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE USE OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING AS AN INSTRUCTIONAL TOOL FOR 1st GRADERS AT CENTRO EDUCATIVO NUEVA GENERACIÓN, HEREDIA, 2018” SYLVIA CHAVES MORALES LAURA MONTERO ROJAS SETIEMBRE, 2018
  • 2. JUSTIFICATION • Because of the global challenges society faces, the traditional methodology in the English classes has strictly to change in order to develop critical thinkers as new citizens of the world, able to solve relevant problems, work in teams, analyze and evaluate information, among others. • These abilities can be developed with the implementation of the Cooperative Learning in the class, which is beneficial to the students in an integral way because it can provide tools to help them to be more selective with the information they receive, analyze it and be more critical with their opinions, which are precisely some of the skills they need to become citizens to the new world.
  • 3. JUSTIFICATION • The effective implementation of Cooperative Learning guarantees a good performance of the English language which is a great tool for students to face the duel against the current society and all its demands and requirements. Besides, Cooperative Learning brings students many benefits in their personal life, helping them in an integral way which makes successful people.
  • 4. PROBLEM STATEMENT How the Cooperative Learning Strategies in EFL classroom of 1st graders can be implemented as an instructional tool for a better performance at English at Centro Educativo Nueva Generación, Heredia, 2018?
  • 5. GENERAL OBJECTIVE To determine the use of Cooperative Learning Strategies as an instructional tool for teaching EFL aiming an improvement in English performance of 1st graders at Centro Educativo Nueva Generación, Heredia, 2018.
  • 6. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES • To identify the use of Cooperative Learning when teaching EFL on 1st graders aiming the importance of its use in classes. • To state the importance of Cooperative Learning in English classes enhancing its use with the students. • To determine the role of the English teacher when using Cooperative Learning aiming the development of a proposal with effective techniques.
  • 7. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES • To describe the role of the students when using Cooperative Learning aiming the correct performance of the strategy. • To propose techniques for an effective use of Cooperative Learning in 1st graders for a better implementation in English classes.
  • 8. VARIABLES • Use of Cooperative Learning when teaching EFL. • Importance of Cooperative Learning in English classes. • Role of the teachers when using Cooperative Learning in English classes. • Role of the students when using Cooperative Learning in English classes.
  • 9. THE INSTITUTION • Centro Educativo Nueva Generación is a private institution located in San Rafael, Heredia. • It began in August 1997 with the pre-enrollment of the first high school students and in February of 1998 they started the lessons with only 28 high school students, 8 teachers and 3 administrative staff. They grew rapidly in infrastructure as well as students, teaching and administrative personnel. • In 2002, started elementary school and in 2004, started preschool. • It has around 450 students. • The total amount of 1st graders is formed by 41 students with ages around 6 and 7 years old.
  • 10. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves students working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that include the following elements: • Positive interdependence. • Individual accountability. • Face to face promotive interaction. • Appropriate use of collaborative skills. • Group processing.
  • 11. Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec (1998:42) identify three different kinds of Cooperative Learning groups. Each type of group has a different purpose, no single one is intrinsically “good” or “bad.” • Formal Cooperative Learning • Informal Cooperative Learning • Cooperative Based Groups THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
  • 12. Formal Cooperative Learning: As the definition given by Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, (2008:6); “Formal Cooperative Learning consists of students working together, for one class period to several weeks”. The main characteristics are: • Interactions among the members of the group are longer in duration. • Group members remain consistent. • Involve considerable planning regarding the formation of the group. • More structured, assignments must be organized. • Have a particular goal and task to accomplish. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
  • 13. Informal Cooperative Learning: Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, (2008:10) state that “Informal Cooperative Learning consists of having students work together to achieve a joint learning goal in temporary, ad-hoc groups that last from a few minutes to one class period”. The most important characteristics are: • Last only brief periods of time, from a few minutes up to a whole class period. • Usually ad hoc, formed rather quickly and without requirements. • Groups have little structure and may be homogeneous or not. • Members are revolving. • Provide a variation on lecture-based classes. • Require little or no planning. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
  • 14. Cooperative Based Groups: According to Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec (2008:14), “Cooperative base groups are long-term, heterogeneous Cooperative Learning groups with stable membership”. The main characteristics: • Long term: can last the entire semester. • Get together on a regular basis. • Involve considerable planning regarding the formation of the group. • Assignments and tasks must be personalized to the group. • Work towards a specific purpose. • Members are constant. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
  • 15. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH: According to Shuttleworth (2008:143), in https://explorable.com; retrieved on April 7th, 2018, a descriptive research design is a scientific method which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way.
  • 16. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK EXPLORATORY RESEARCH: Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2012:301) state that “it is conducted in order to determine the nature of the problem, exploratory research is not intended to provide conclusive evidence, but helps us to have a better understanding of the problem. When conducting exploratory research, the researcher ought to be willing to change his/her direction as a result of revelation of new data and new insights”.
  • 17. QUANTITATIVE APPROACH: Creswell (2009:93) claimed that a quantitative research is a mean for testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables. These variables in turn, can be measured. Typically on instruments, so that numbered data can be analyzed using statistical procedures. The goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing, an independent variable and another, a dependent variable within a population. QUALITATIVE APPROACH: Hernández, Fernández, and Baptista, (2006:116) say that: “The term qualitative research can be defined as a series of interpretative practices that makes the world visible, transforms it, and turns it in a series of representations in form of annotations, observations, records, and documents. It is naturalist because studies objects or human beings in their natural environment.”
  • 18. MIXED APPROACH: Sieber (1973) stated that: “Mixed methods strategies are less well known than either the quantitative or qualitative approaches. The concept of mixing different methods was originated in 1959 when Campbell and Fisk used multimethods to study validity of psychological traits. They encouraged others to employ their multimethod matrix to examine multiple approaches to data collection.”.
  • 19. POPULATION: Polit and Hungler (1999:37) refer to the population as “an aggregate or totality of all the objects, subjects or members that conform to a set of specifications.” For this research the population will be defined as the total amount of 1st graders at Centro Educativo Nueva Generación, which is formed by 41 students with ages around 6 and 7 years old.
  • 20. SAMPLE: Kumar (2000:219) defines a sample as “a chosen subset of elements from the population”. For this research, the sample is going to be integrated by 15 students, all of them 1st graders who are part of the group 1- A. Also there are three English teachers of this institution that work with these students who will be part of the sample.
  • 21. ANALYSIS OF THE OBSERVATION • The teacher used Cooperative Learning in most of the activities developed during the class. • It was perceived that the classroom distribution and the activities made by the teacher encouraged students to interact with each other. Students had some difficulties to work with their classmates in terms of communication. • The teacher had an active role during the class. She used English most of the time, and gave clear and specific instructions for the students to follow. • Cooperative Learning includes different roles that students have to develop in the different groups, these roles were not clear during the observation.
  • 22. ANALYSIS OF THE INTERVIEW • In general terms teachers know what cooperative learning is. In terms of results, it was mentioned that is rewarding to see the students overcome learning difficulties or learning social skills. The process is going to take a long way to get better results. • Related to the advantages of using Cooperative Learning in the English class, were mentioned some such as, growing English levels, increase their knowledge, learn how to cooperate with others, create confidence and tolerance to failure. In terms of academicals improvement, is necessary to give more time developing this method to see real results. .
  • 23. ANALYSIS OF THE INTERVIEW • The role fulfilled by the teachers is to guide the students through the process of solving issues in their groups , to help them interact in a safety way, follow the rules and achieve objectives. This may be stressful sometimes. • The role of the students has made the social interaction increased since students are being forced to interact with all kind of classmates and not only with their close friends.
  • 24. ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES
  • 25. THE STUDENTS LIKE TO WORK IN GROUPS 93,33% 6,67% 0% A lot Little Nothing
  • 26. THE STUDENTS KNOW THE MEANING OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING 60% 6,67% 33,33% Yes No N/A
  • 27. THE STUDENTS CONSIDER IMPORTANT THE COOPERATIVE LEARNING 73,33% 13,33% 13,33% A lot Little Nothing
  • 28. THE STUDENTS CONSIDER THEY LEARN BETTER WHEN WORKING IN GROUPS 86,66% 6,67% 6,67% Yes No N/A
  • 29. THE ENGLISH TEACHER MOTIVATES STUDENTS 86,67% 13,33% 0% A lot Little Nothing
  • 30. STUDENTS CONSIDER THE TEACHER GUIDES THEM IN GROUP WORKS 100% 0% 0% A lot Little Nothing
  • 31. STUDENTS KNOW THEIR SPECIFIC ROLE IN GROUP WORK 86,67% 13,33% 0% Yes No N/A
  • 32. STUDENTS HELP EACH OTHER WHEN WORKING IN GROUPS 73,33% 20% 6,67% Yes No N/A
  • 33. CONCLUSIONS Even though the work of the students was observed in small groups of two or three, the use of cooperative learning is not clearly defined. Some of the activities are carried out in groups, but the role that both the teacher and the student must fulfill is not perceived or is not well rehearsed or defined. The instruments applied evidences that the classroom distribution and all the activities put into practice by the teacher encourages students to interact with one another in a friendly environment. Students enjoy working in groups in the class, covering the social affective learning and personality development of each member.
  • 34. CONCLUSIONS The English teachers guide and monitor the students through the process of solving issues in their groups, interact, follow the rules, accomplish objectives, and activate the ways students can learn. Hence, the importance of giving a better training and support to the team of teachers that guides the students along the implementation of Cooperative Learning. The way each student assumes the role each of them has, varies because is hard for them to stick on the task assigned, some students forget what they have to do, some students are more responsible and assume their role perfectly, but others in a few quantity do not fulfill their role and there is an overcharge of functions.
  • 35. COST OF THE STUDY DESCRIPTION QUANTITY UNIT COST (COLONES) TOTAL (COLONES) TOTAL (DOLLARS) Travel expenses 50 715 35.750 62.71 Office supplies 10 1.600 16.000 28.06 Papers and printings 1.000 30 30.000 52.62 Professional hours 30 13.602 408.060 715.79 Food and beverages 32 3.200 102.400 201.94 Total 1.122 13.045 592.210 1061.12 Exchange rate: Banco Central de Costa Rica, 1 USD=570.08 colones, July 1st, 2018. Source: Chaves, Sylvia, Montero, Laura, Universidad Magister, 2018. Value of professional hour according to COLYPRO ₡13.602
  • 36. RECOMMENDATIONS • Design an effective Cooperative Learning environment. • Manage a cooperative exercise effectively. • Debrief the process after the activity. • Establish clear group goals. • Build trust and promote open communication. • Consider using different strategies. • Use real-world problems. • Make students know the process and their roles.
  • 37. PROPOSAL OFA GUIDELINE FOR TEACHERS AND STUDENTS WITHA SET OF INSTRUCTIONSAND ACTIVITIESAIMING THE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING AS AN INSTRUCTIONAL TOOL IN THE ENGLISH CLASS OF 1st GRADERS
  • 38. JUSTIFICATION • This proposal aims to establish the major benefits on the use of Cooperative Learning as an instructional strategy in the English class. Costa Rican Educational System is implementing this instructional tool in its programs. • Nowadays, society demands new citizens with critical thinking, able to solve relevant problems, work in teams, analyze and evaluate information. • Cooperative Learning is one of the answers to current education, teachers should be ready to implement it correctly.
  • 39. GENERAL OBJECTIVE To propose a guideline with a structured index for teachers and students, with a set of instructions and activities, aiming the effective implementation of Cooperative Learning as an instructional tool in the English class of 1st graders at Centro Educativo Nueva Generación, Heredia, 2018.
  • 40. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES • To develop a guide for English teachers of the use of Cooperative Learning aiming its correct implementation. • To elaborate a list of activities promoting the use of Cooperative Learning in the English class.
  • 41. PROPOSAL DEVELOPMENT • DEVELOPMENT OF A GUIDELINE TO APPLY COOPERATIVE LEARNING PHASE 1 • CREATE A SET OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES PHASE 2
  • 42. PHASE 1: DEVELOPMENT OFA GUIDELINE TO APPLY COOPERATIVE LEARNING • Set an effective structure • Make teams • Assign the roles (teacher and students) • Teach the process skills • Select an assessment/incentive approach • Provide group management • Provide feedback
  • 43. PHASE 2: CREATE A SET OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES • Round robin • Roundtable • Write around • Numbered heads together • Team jigsaw • Tea party • Literature circles in groups of four
  • 44. COST OF THE PROPOSAL DESCRIPTION QUANTITY UNIT COST (COLONES) TOTAL (COLONES) TOTAL (DOLLARS) Professional hours 16 13.602 217.632 381.66 Transportation 6 715 4.290 7.52 Copies and printings 6 2.000 12.000 21.04 Materials 8 2.000 16.000 28.05 Total 36 18.317 249.922 437.61 Exchange rate: Banco Central de Costa Rica, 1 USD=570.22 colones, August 14th, 2018. Source: Chaves, Sylvia, Montero, Laura, Universidad Magister, 2018. Value of professional hour according to COLYPRO ₡13.602
  • 45. SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSAL
  • 46. STRENGTHS FOR TEACHERS: • Application of a detailed guideline to apply Cooperative Learning accurately in their English class. • Better understanding of Cooperative Learning as an instructional tool in the English class. • Reinforcement of different topics through many and varied activities. • Accompaniment through the process of implementation of CL in the class. • Better performance of the students with the English language. • Raise achievement of students. FOR STUDENTS: • Development in the social skills. • Improvement on the four main skills of the English Language. • Greater motivation. • Implementation of cooperation beyond the class. • Building of positive relationships among students. • Better performance of the English language.
  • 47. WEAKNESSES • Lack of technological instruments to get the guideline. • Reduced amount of English lessons weekly. • Overload of work teachers have. • Lack of habit students have about working in groups.
  • 48. OPPORTUNITIES • Improvement of the quality of education. • Implementation of Cooperative Learning as an instructional tool in the English classes. • Higher interaction between students. • A better consciousness of cooperation in society. • Development of both good learning skills and social skills. • Implementation of a variety of skills to educate 21st century citizens.
  • 49. THREATS • Misunderstanding of the teachers with the guideline. • Lack of time. • The attitude of students and teachers about the implementation of Cooperative Learning in the English class.
  • 50. IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSAL ACADEMIC IMPACT The proposal of this research has the objective to create a structured guideline that English teachers may use at the beginning of each year in order to plan the Cooperative Learning groups. It will be used in a workshop with the English teachers during the next school term. Besides, the proposal includes Cooperative Learning activities to promote its use in the English class, it is very important to motivate students through activities that are attractive to them and that allow them to achieve communicative objectives.
  • 51. IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSAL SOCIAL IMPACT The proposal establishes a firm guide and strategies to promote the use of Cooperative Learning in the English classes. Students who work cooperatively show a better attitude toward school, enjoy more in class, have a greater interest in deepening in the subject they learn. In addition, teachers will grow professionally; the new knowledge of the characteristics of Cooperative Learning will allow the teacher to program activities that will be developed in each class in an appropriate way.
  • 52. OTHER DERIVED STUDIES • Real scopes of the use of Cooperative Learning in the English classes. • A descriptive study of an educational community where Cooperative Learning is applied. • Aftermaths that Cooperative Learning has in society. • Social effects of Cooperative Learning in the lives of students. • Educational effects of Cooperative Learning in the students. • Strategies to implement Cooperative Learning in the class. • Process of the correct implementation of Cooperative Learning in the class. • Comparison between Cooperative Learning and Ludic activities.
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