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  Designation: A 615/A 615M – 01  American Association State Highway andTransportation Officials StandardAASHTO No.: M 31 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for ConcreteReinforcement 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designationA615/A615M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon ( e ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. 1. Scope 1.1 This specification covers deformed and plain billet-steelbars for concrete reinforcement in cut lengths and coils. Thestandard sizes and dimensions of deformed bars and theirnumber designations are given in Table 1. The text of thisspecification references notes and footnotes which provideexplanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excludingthose in tables and figures) shall not be considered as require-ments of the specification.1.2 Bars are of three minimum yield levels: namely, 40 000[300 MPa], 60 000 [420 MPa], and 75 000 psi [520 MPa],designated as Grade 40 [300], Grade 60 [420], and Grade 75[520], respectively.1.3 Hot-rolled plain rounds, in sizes up to and including 2in. [50.8 mm] in diameter in coils or cut lengths, whenspecified for dowels, spirals and structural ties or supports shallbe furnished under this specification in Grade 40 [300], Grade60 [420], and Grade 75 [520]. For ductility properties (elon-gation and bending), test provisions of the nearest smallernominal diameter deformed bar size shall apply. Requirementsproviding for deformations and marking shall not be appli-cable. N OTE  1—Welding of the material in this specification should beapproached with caution since no specific provisions have been includedto enhance its weldability. When steel is to be welded, a weldingprocedure suitable for the chemical composition and intended use orservice should be used. The use of the latest edition of ANSI/AWS D 1.4is recommended. This document describes the proper selection of the fillermetals, preheat/interpass temperatures, as well as, performance andprocedure qualification requirements. 1.4 This specification is applicable for orders in eitherinch-pound units (as Specification A 615) or in SI units (asSpecification A 615M).1.5 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI unitsare to be regarded as standard. Within the text, the SI units areshown in brackets. The values stated in each system are notexact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used inde-pendently of the other. Combining values from the two systemsmay result in nonconformance with the specification. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1  ASTM Standards: A 6/A 6M Specification for General Requirements forRolled Structural Steel Bars, Plates, Shapes, and SheetPiling 2 A 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel Products 3 A 510 Specification for General Requirements for WireRods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel 3 A 510M Specification for General Requirements for WireRods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel (Metric) 3 A 700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and LoadingMethods for Steel Products for Domestic Shipment 4 A 706/A 706M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel De-formed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement 2 E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data toDetermine Conformance with Specifications 5 2.2  AWS Standard: ANSI/AWS D 1.4 Structural Welding Code—ReinforcingSteel 6 2.3  U.S. Military Standards: MIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and Storage 7 MIL-STD-163 Steel Mill Products Preparation for Ship-ment and Storage 7 2.4  U.S. Federal Standard: Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment (Civil Agencies) 7 3. Terminology 3.1  Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 3.1.1  deformed bar, n —steel bar with protrusions; a bar thatis intended for use as reinforcement in reinforced concreteconstruction. 1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.05 on Steel Reinforcement.Current edition approved March 10, 2001. Published March 2001. Originallypublished as A 615 – 68. Last previous edition A 615/A 615M – 00. 2  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.04. 3  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.03. 4  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.05. 5  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 14.02. 6 Available from American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, P.O. Box351040, Miami, FL 33135. 7 Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D, 700Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn: NPODS. 1 Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. NOTICE: This standard has either been superseded and replaced by a new version or discontinued.Contact ASTM International (www.astm.org) for the latest information.  3.1.1.1  Discussion —The surface of the bar is provided withlugs or protrusions that inhibit longitudinal movement of thebar relative to the concrete surrounding the bar in suchconstruction. The lugs or protusions conform to the provisionsof this specification.3.1.2  deformations, n —protrusions on a deformed bar.3.1.3  plain bar, n —steel bar without protrusions.3.1.4  rib, n —longitudinal protrusion on a deformed bar. 4. Ordering Information 4.1 It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to specifyall requirements that are necessary for material ordered to thisspecification. Such requirements shall include but are notlimited to the following:4.1.1 Quantity (weight) [mass],4.1.2 Name of material (deformed and plain billet-steel barsfor concrete reinforcement),4.1.3 Size,4.1.4 Cut lengths or coils,4.1.5 Deformed or plain,4.1.6 Grade,4.1.7 Packaging (see Section 21),4.1.8 ASTM designation and year of issue, and4.1.9 Certified mill test reports (if desired). (See Section16.) N OTE  2—A typical ordering description is as follows: 20 tons, de-formed and plain billet-steel bars for concrete reinforcement, No. 8, 60 ft0 in. long, deformed, Grade 60, in secured lifts, to ASTM A 615 – __ .Certified mill test reports are required.[19 tons, deformed and plain billet-steel bars for concrete reinforce-ment, No. 25, 18.3-m long, deformed, Grade 420, in secured lifts toASTM A 615M – __ . Certified mill test reports are required.] 5. Material and Manufacture 5.1 The bars shall be rolled from properly identified heats of mold cast or strand cast steel using the open-hearth, basic-oxygen, or electric-furnace process. 6. Chemical Composition 6.1 An analysis of each heat of steel shall be made by themanufacturer from test samples taken preferably during thepouring of the heats. The percentages of carbon, manganese,phosphorus, and sulfur, shall be determined. The phosphoruscontent thus determined shall not exceed 0.06 %.6.2 An analysis may be made by the purchaser from finishedbars. The phosphorus content thus determined shall not exceedthat specified in 6.1 by more than 25 %. 7. Requirements for Deformations 7.1 Deformations shall be spaced along the bar at substan-tially uniform distances. The deformations on opposite sides of the bar shall be similar in size, shape, and pattern.7.2 The deformations shall be placed with respect to the axisof the bar so that the included angle is not less than 45°. Wherethe line of deformations forms an included angle with the axisof the bar from 45 to 70° inclusive, the deformations shallalternately reverse in direction on each side, or those on oneside shall be reversed in direction from those on the oppositeside. Where the line of deformations is over 70°, a reversal indirection shall not be required.7.3 The average spacing or distance between deformationson each side of the bar shall not exceed seven tenths of thenominal diameter of the bar.7.4 The overall length of deformations shall be such that thegap between the ends of the deformations on opposite sides of the bar shall not exceed 12 1  ⁄  2  % of the nominal perimeter of thebar. Where the ends terminate in a longitudinal rib, the width of the longitudinal rib shall be considered the gap. Where morethan two longitudinal ribs are involved, the total width of alllongitudinal ribs shall not exceed 25 % of the nominal perim-eter of the bar; furthermore, the summation of gaps shall notexceed 25 % of the nominal perimeter of the bar. The nominalperimeter of the bar shall be 3.14 times the nominal diameter.7.5 The spacing, height, and gap of deformations shallconform to the requirements prescribed in Table 1. 8. Measurements of Deformations 8.1 The average spacing of deformations shall be deter-mined by measuring the length of a minimum of 10 spaces anddividing that length by the number of spaces included in themeasurement. The measurement shall begin from a point on adeformation at the beginning of the first space to a correspond-ing point on a deformation after the last included space.Spacing measurments shall not be made over a bar area TABLE 1 Deformed Bar Designation Numbers, Nominal Weights [Masses], Nominal Dimensions, and Deformation Requirements Bar DesignationNo. A Nominal Weight,lb/ft[Nominal Mass,kg/m]Nominal Dimensions B  Deformation Requirements, in. [mm]Diameter,in. [mm]Cross-SectionalArea,in. 2 [mm 2 ]Perimeter,in. [mm]MaximumAverageSpacingMinimumAverageHeightMaximum Gap(Chord of 12.5 % ofNominal Perimeter)3 [10] 0.376 [0.560] 0.375 [9.5] 0.11 [71] 1.178 [29.9] 0.262 [6.7] 0.015 [0.38] 0.143 [3.6]4 [13] 0.668 [0.994] 0.500 [12.7] 0.20 [129] 1.571 [39.9] 0.350 [8.9] 0.020 [0.51] 0.191 [4.9]5 [16] 1.043 [1.552] 0.625 [15.9] 0.31 [199] 1.963 [49.9] 0.437 [11.1] 0.028 [0.71] 0.239 [6.1]6 [19] 1.502 [2.235] 0.750 [19.1] 0.44 [284] 2.356 [59.8] 0.525 [13.3] 0.038 [0.97] 0.286 [7.3]7 [22] 2.044 [3.042] 0.875 [22.2] 0.60 [387] 2.749 [69.8] 0.612 [15.5] 0.044 [1.12] 0.334 [8.5]8 [25] 2.670 [3.973] 1.000 [25.4] 0.79 [510] 3.142 [79.8] 0.700 [17.8] 0.050 [1.27] 0.383 [9.7]9 [29] 3.400 [5.060] 1.128 [28.7] 1.00 [645] 3.544 [90.0] 0.790 [20.1] 0.056 [1.42] 0.431 [10.9]10 [32] 4.303 [6.404] 1.270 [32.3] 1.27 [819] 3.990 [101.3] 0.889 [22.6] 0.064 [1.63] 0.487 [12.4]11 [36] 5.313 [7.907] 1.410 [35.8] 1.56 [1006] 4.430 [112.5] 0.987 [25.1] 0.071 [1.80] 0.540 [13.7]14 [43] 7.65 [11.38] 1.693 [43.0] 2.25 [1452] 5.32 [135.1] 1.185 [30.1] 0.085 [2.16] 0.648 [16.5]18 [57] 13.60 [20.24] 2.257 [57.3] 4.00 [2581] 7.09 [180.1] 1.58 [40.1] 0.102 [2.59] 0.864 [21.9] A Bar numbers are based on the number of eighths of an inch included in the nominal diameter of the bars [bar numbers approximate the number of millimetres of thenominal diameter of the bar]. B  The nominal dimensions of a deformed bar are equivalent to those of a plain round bar having the same weight [mass] per foot [metre] as the deformed bar. A 615/A 615M 2  containing bar marking symbols involving letters or numbers.8.2 The average height of deformations shall be determinedfrom measurements made on not less than two typical defor-mations. Determinations shall be based on three measurementsper deformation, one at the center of the overall length and theother two at the quarter points of the overall length.8.3 Insufficient height, insufficient circumferential cover-age, or excessive spacing of deformations shall not constitutecause for rejection unless it has been clearly established bydeterminations on each lot (Note 3) tested that typical defor-mation height, gap, or spacing do not conform to the minimumrequirements prescribed in Section 7. No rejection shall bemade on the basis of measurements if fewer than ten adjacentdeformations on each side of the bar are measured. N OTE  3—As used within the intent of 8.3, the term “lot” shall mean allthe bars of one bar size and pattern of deformations contained in anindividual shipping release or shipping order. 9. Tensile Requirements 9.1 The material, as represented by the test specimens, shallconform to the requirements for tensile properties prescribed inTable 2.9.2 The yield point or yield strength shall be determined byone of the following methods:9.2.1 The yield point shall be determined by drop of thebeam or halt in the gage of the testing machine.9.2.2 Where the steel tested does not have a well-definedyield point, the yield strength shall be determined by readingthe stress corresponding to the prescribed strain using anautographic diagram method or an extensometer as describedin Test Methods and Definitions A 370. The strain shall be0.5 % of gage length for Grade 40 [300] and Grade 60 [420]and shall be 0.35 % of gage length for Grade 75 [520]. Whenmaterial is furnished in coils, the test sample shall be straight-ened prior to placing it in the jaws of the tensile machine.Straightening shall be done carefully to avoid formation of local sharp bends and to minimize cold work. Insufficientstraightening prior to attaching the extensometer can result inlower-than-actual yield strength readings.9.3 The percentage of elongation shall be as prescribed inTable 2. 10. Bending Requirements 10.1 The bend-test specimen shall withstand being bentaround a pin without cracking on the outside radius of the bentportion. The requirements for degree of bending and sizes of pins are prescribed in Table 3. When material is furnished incoils, the test sample shall be straightened prior to placing it inthe bend tester.10.2 The bend test shall be made on specimens of sufficientlength to ensure free bending and with apparatus whichprovides:10.2.1 Continuous and uniform application of forcethroughout the duration of the bending operation.10.2.2 Unrestricted movement of the specimen at points of contact with the apparatus and bending around a pin free torotate.10.2.3 Close wrapping of the specimen around the pinduring the bending operation.10.3 Other acceptable more severe methods of bend testing,such as placing a specimen across two pins free to rotate andapplying the bending force with a fixed pin, may be used.When failures occur under more severe methods, retests shallbe permitted under the bend-test method prescribed in 10.2. 11. Permissible Variation in Weight [Mass] 11.1 Deformed reinforcing bars shall be evaluated on thebasis of nominal weight [mass]. The weight [mass] determinedusing the measured weight [mass] of the test specimen androunding in accordance with Practice E 29, shall be at least 94% of the applicable weight [mass] per unit length prescribed inTable 1. In no case shall overweight [excess mass] of anydeformed bar be the cause for rejection. Weight [mass]variation for plain rounds shall be computed on the basis of permissible variation in diameter. For plain bars smaller than 3  ⁄  8 in. [9.5 mm], use Specification A 510 [SpecificationA 510M]. For larger bars up to and including 2 in. [50.8 mm],use Specification A 6/A 6M. 12. Finish 12.1 The bars shall be free of detrimental surface imperfec-tions.12.2 Rust, seams, surface irregularities, or mill scale shallnot be cause for rejection, provided the weight, dimensions,cross-sectional area, and tensile properties of a hand wirebrushed test specimen are not less than the requirements of thisspecification.12.3 Surface imperfections or flaws other than those speci-fied in 12.2 shall be considered detrimental when specimenscontaining such imperfections fail to conform to either tensileor bending requirements. Examples include, but are not limitedto, laps, seams, scabs, slivers, cooling or casting cracks, andmill or guide marks. TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements Grade 40[300] A Grade 60[420]Grade 75[520] B  Tensile strength, min, psi[MPa]70 000 [500] 90 000 [620] 100 000 [690]Yield strength, min, psi[MPa]40 000 [300] 60 000 [420] 75 000 [520]Elongation in 8 in. [203.2mm], min, %:Bar Designation No.3 [10] 11 9 . . .4, 5 [13, 16] 12 9 . . .6 [19] 12 9 77, 8 [22, 25] . . . 8 79, 10, 11 [29, 32, 36] . . . 7 614, 18 [43, 57] . . . 7 6 A Grade 40 [300] bars are furnished only in sizes 3 through 6 [10 through 19]. B  Grade 75 [520] bars are furnished only in sizes 6 through 18 [19 through 57]. TABLE 3 Bend Test Requirements Bar Designation No.Pin Diameter for Bend Tests A Grade 40 [300] Grade 60 [420] Grade 75 [520]3, 4, 5 [10, 13, 16] 3 1  ⁄  2 d   B  3 1  ⁄  2 d   . . .6 [19] 5 d   5 d   5 d  7, 8 [22, 25] . . . 5 d   5 d  9, 10, 11 [29, 32, 36] . . . 7 d   7 d  14, 18 [43, 57] (90°) . . . 9 d   9 d  A Test bends 180°unless noted otherwise. B  d   = nominal diameter of specimen. A 615/A 615M 3  N OTE  4—Reinforcing bar intended for epoxy coating applicationsshould have surfaces with a minimum of sharp edges to achieve propercover. Particular attention should be given to bar marks and deformationswhere coating difficulties are prone to occur.N OTE  5—Deformed bars destined to be mechanically-spliced or butt-welded may require a certain degree of roundness in order for the splicesto adequately achieve strength requirements. 13. Number of Tests 13.1 For bar sizes No. 3 to 11 [10 to 36], inclusive, onetension test and one bend test shall be made of the largest sizerolled from each heat. If, however, material from one heatdiffers by three or more designation numbers, one tension andone bend test shall be made from both the highest and lowestdesignation number of the deformed bars rolled.13.2 For bar sizes Nos. 14 and 18 [43 and 57], one tensiontest and one bend test shall be made of each size rolled fromeach heat. 14. Retests 14.1 If any tensile property of any tension test specimen isless than that specified, and any part of the fracture is outsidethe middle third of the gage length, as indicated by scribescratches marked on the specimen before testing, a retest shallbe allowed.14.2 If the results of an original tension specimen fail tomeet the specified minimum requirements and are within 2000psi [14 MPa] of the required tensile strength, within 1000 psi[7 MPa] of the required yield point, or within two percentageunits of the required elongation, a retest shall be permitted ontwo random specimens for each original tension specimenfailure from the lot. Both retest specimens shall meet therequirements of this specification.14.3 If a bend test fails for reasons other than mechanicalreasons or flaws in the specimen as described in 14.5 and 14.6,a retest shall be permitted on two random specimens from thesame lot. Both retest specimens shall meet the requirements of this specification. The retest shall be performed on test speci-mens that are at air temperature but not less than 60°F [16°C].14.4 If a weight [mass] test fails for reasons other than flawsin the specimen as described in 14.6, a retest shall be permittedon two random specimens from the same lot. Both retestspecimens shall meet the requirements of this specification.14.5 If any test specimen fails because of mechanicalreasons such as failure of testing equipment or improperspecimen preparation, it may be discarded and another speci-men taken.14.6 If flaws are detected in a test specimen, either before orduring the performance of the test, it may be discarded andanother specimen of the same size bar from the same heatsubstituted. 15. Test Specimens 15.1 All mechanical tests shall be conducted in accordancewith Test Methods and Definitions A 370 including Annex A9.15.2 Tension test specimens shall be the full section of thebar as rolled. The unit stress determination shall be based onthe nominal bar area.15.3 The bend-test specimens shall be the full section of thebar as rolled. 16. Test Reports 16.1 When specified in the purchase order, report thefollowing information, on a per heat basis. Additional itemsmay be reported as requested or desired.16.1.1 Chemical analysis including carbon, manganese,phosphorus, and sulfur.16.1.2 Tensile properties.16.1.3 Bend test. 17. Inspection 17.1 The inspector representing the purchaser shall havefree entry, at all times while work on the contract of thepurchaser is being performed, to all parts of the manufacturer’sworks that concern the manufacture of the material ordered.The manufacturer shall afford the inspector all reasonablefacilities to satisfy him that the material is being furnished inaccordance with this specification. All tests (except productanalysis) and inspection, shall be made at the place of manufacture prior to shipment, unless otherwise specified, andshall be so conducted as not to interfere unnecessarily with theoperation of the works.17.2  For Government Procurement Only — Except as oth-erwise specified in the contract, the contractor is responsiblefor the performance of all inspection and test requirementsspecified herein and may use his own or any other suitablefacilities for the performance of the inspection and testrequirements specified herein, unless disapproved by the pur-chaser at the time of purchase. The purchaser shall have theright to perform any of the inspections and tests at the samefrequency as set forth in this specification, where such inspec-tions are deemed necessary to ensure that material conforms toprescribed requirements. 18. Rejection 18.1 Unless otherwise specified, any rejection based on testsmade in accordance with 6.2, shall be reported to the manu-facturer within five working days from the receipt of samplesby the purchaser.18.2 Material that shows injurious defects subsequent to itsacceptance at the manufacturer’s works will be rejected, andthe manufacturer shall be notified. 19. Rehearing 19.1 Samples tested in accordance with 6.2 that representrejected material shall be preserved for two weeks from thedate rejection is reported to the manufacturer. In case of dissatisfaction with the results of the tests, the manufacturermay make claim for a rehearing within that time. 20. Marking 20.1 When loaded for mill shipment, bars shall be properlyseparated and tagged with the manufacturer’s heat or testidentification number.20.2 Each producer shall identify the symbols of his mark-ing system.20.3 All bars produced to this specification, except plainround bars which shall be tagged for grade, shall be identifiedby a distinguishing set of marks legibly rolled onto the surfaceof one side of the bar to denote in the following order: A 615/A 615M 4
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