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  Taxation on the Preservation of Property: The Government ’s  Roles and the Politics of Collecting Taxes Amiel Ryan A. Rapista BA (Political Science  –  History) IV In partial fulfillment of the course requirements in Political Science 193 (Modern Political Theory) Submitted to: Prof. Brian C. Ventura Division of Social Sciences College of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines Visayas May 2018  2 TAXATION AND PROPERTY Abstract  Taxation is the sole responsibility of the government in the preservation of property. John Locke argued in his Two Treatises of Government that political society existed for the sake of protecting property , which he defined as a person's life, liberty, and estate . Specifically, it is the sole responsibility of the government to protect and preserve this property. Adam Smith also believed that government’s main roles in society should be limited, but well defined. The government should provide national defense, the administration of justice, and public goods. In much simple words, it should protect citizens from external and internal aggression and supply goods that the free market may not provide. The government should also protect the fundamental rights of the individuals in the society (including the right to enjoy the fruits of their labor) that are essential to self-preservation and happiness. Taxation has an essential role in this preservation. Furthermore, the government is a benevolent entity that protects citizens' rights and property, and providing services. These services cost money to provide, so the government has to fund these with taxes. But taxation becomes problematic when under a government without checks and balances. This paper aims to find out how does taxation by the government preserves and protects an individual’s property. Also, it will find out the problems that would arise in the collection of taxes when the government is put under a system without checks and balances. It is hoped that this study will give a sight on the system of taxation and how it determines the way it is being spent.  3 TAXATION AND PROPERTY Introduction Despite the reasons or motivation for the imposition of tax, tax collection has been implemented by various domains in different places and time, taxation is a common phenomenon of human society (Lymer and Hasseldine, 2002). In the course of the history of taxation, the collection of taxes has been a method by means of which a government may impose money from the citizens of any state or country. And while some may delineate taxation as a compulsory levy made by public authorities for which nothing is received directly in return (Bardopoulos, 2015), a more apt definition states that taxes may be the dues that we pay for the privileges of membership in an organized society (Roosevelt, 1936). The government is the responsible entity in collecting these taxes. Taxes are imposed in almost every country of the world, primarily to raise revenue for government expenditures, although they serve other purposes as well (Cox et al, 2016). The government as a benevolent entity protecting citizens' rights and property, and providing services. These services cost money to provide, so the government has to fund these with taxes. Furthermore, on a more contemporary era, taxation has been problematic in the society especially when put under a government without checks and balances. In this research, checks and balances is a system that actually describes how the branches of government work together to ensure that no one person or group has all of the power (Joslyn, 2017). Specifically, this paper aims to examine and find out how does taxation by the government preserves and protects an individual’s property. In addition, it will also find out the problems that would arise in the collection of ta xes. The succeeding parts of this report will include John Locke’s discussions on taxation and property. Moreover, I will include in this analysis the role of the government and the Four Maxims of Taxes discussion of Adam Smith. Taxation according to John Locke According to John Locke, In the Two Treatises of Government, men are by nature free and equal against claims that God had made all individuals normally subject to a ruler. He contended that individuals have rights, for example, the privilege to life, liberty, and property, which have an establishment independent of the laws of any particular  4 TAXATION AND PROPERTY society. Locke utilized the claim that men are normally free and equal as a major aspect of the justification for understanding legitimate political government as the consequence of a social contract where individuals in the state of nature restrictively transfer a portion of their rights to the government so as to better guarantee the stable, and comfortable enjoyment regarding their lives, liberty, and property. John Locke also emphasized the primary purpose of the government which was to protect property rights, he was not merely referring to material objects but rather the government should protect the fundamental rights of the individuals in the society including the right to enjoy the fruits of our labor that are essential to self-preservation and happiness. John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government stated that:   “….It is true that governments need a great deal of money for their support, and it is ap  propriate that each person who enjoys his share of the protection should pay his proportion of the cost. But it must be with his consent, i.e. the consent of the majority, given either ·directly· by themselves or through representatives they have chosen; for if anyone claims a power to impose taxes on the people by his own authority and without such consent of the people, he is invading the fundamental law of  property and subverting the purpose of government….”   (Locke, Second Treatise of Government Chapter 11, the extent of the legislative power, Section 140 p. 45) Government should collect money in order to fund the services that the public need in order to preserve their property. For instance, preservation of property through military security. Furthermore, the protection of property in an armed conflict situation is an imperative (O’Keef et al., 2016). Through the security provided by the military, destruction or damage and all misappropriation of property will be avoidable. On the contrary, taking due care to property from destruction, damage and all forms of embezzlement, including through rigorous adherence to the laws of armed conflict, can be achieved through proper funding from the government to the military in order to provide security. This notion is further stipulated in Locke’s discussion on property. Property according to John Locke According to Locke, in the natural state —  that srcinal condition in which each individual had an equal right to utilize natural resources given by the spontaneous hand of nature —  nobody had a private dominion, exclusive of the rest of mankind, over those resources. In any case, such resources would have been pointless for human survival
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