VIBEKAP, MỘT SỐ KẾT QUẢ VỀ HỢP TÁC ĐÀO TẠO VÀ NGHIÊN CỨU CỦA CÁC CÁN BỘ VIỆN NGHIÊN CỨU ĐỊA CHẤT VÀ KHOÁNG SẢN TẠI CÁC TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC CỦA VƯƠNG QUỐC B

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  VIBEKAP, MỘT SỐ KẾT QUẢ VỀ HỢP TÁC ĐÀO TẠO VÀ NGHIÊN CỨU CỦA CÁC CÁN BỘ VIỆN NGHIÊN CỨU ĐỊA CHẤT VÀ KHOÁNG SẢN TẠI CÁC TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC CỦA VƯƠNG QUỐC B
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  ĐỊ A CH Ấ T VÀ KHOÁNG S Ả N - T Ậ P 9 VI Ệ N NGHIÊN C Ứ U ĐỊ A CH Ấ T VÀ KHOÁNG S Ả N VIBEKAP, M Ộ T S Ố  K  Ế T QU Ả  V Ề  H Ợ  P TÁC Đ ÀO T Ạ O VÀ NGHIÊN C Ứ  U C Ủ A CÁC CÁN B Ộ  VI Ệ N NGHIÊN C Ứ  U ĐỊ A CH Ấ T VÀ KHOÁNG S Ả N T Ạ I CÁC TR  ƯỜ  NG ĐẠ I H Ọ C C Ủ A V ƯƠ  NG QU Ố C B Ỉ   OKKE BATELAAN 1 , LÊ QU Ố C HÙNG 2 , V Ũ  THANH TÂM 2 ,  NGUY Ễ  N TH Ị  H Ả I VÂN 2 , V Ũ  TH Ị  MINH NGUY Ệ T 2 ,  NGUY Ễ  N THÀNH LONG 2 , F. DE SMEDT 1  D ự   án h ợ   p tác nghiên c ứ  u v ề   các vùng karst gi ữ  a Vi ệ t Nam và B ỉ   (VIBEKAP) đượ  c tài tr  ợ   b ở  i H  ộ i đồ ng các tr  ườ  ng đạ i h ọ c kh ố  i Hà Lan ng  ữ   c ủ a V  ươ  ng Qu ố  c B ỉ   (VLIR), là d  ự   án đượ  c th ự  c hi ệ n trong giai đ  o ạ n 1998-2003,   mà đố  i tác chính phía Vi ệ t Nam là Vi ệ n  Nghiên c ứ  u  Đị a ch ấ  t và Khoáng s ả n (RIGMR) và các đố  i tác khác phía B ỉ   là tr  ườ  ng  Đạ i h ọ c T  ổ  ng h ợ   p Leuven (KUL), C  ụ c  Đị a ch ấ  t B ỉ   , Tr  ườ  ng  Đạ i h ọ c T  ổ  ng h ợ   p T  ự   do Bruxel (VUB), Phòng k   ỹ   thu ậ t Thu  ỷ  v ă n và Thu  ỷ  L ự  c (thu ộ c VUB). M  ặ c dù d  ự   án VIBEKAP đ  ã k  ế  t thúc n ă m 2003, nh ư  ng vi ệ c c ộ ng tác nghiên c ứ  u và đ  ào t  ạ o v ẫ  n ti ế   p t  ụ c phát tri ể  n thông qua các nghiên c ứ  u sinh b ậ c ti ế  n s ĩ   và d  ự   án   b ả o t  ồ n karst vùng Tây b ắ  c Vi ệ t Nam (LLINC). D ự   án VIBEKAP đ  ã có nhi ề  u k  ế  t qu ả  nghiên c ứ  u quan tr  ọ ng, c ũ ng nh ư    đ  ã đ  ào t  ạ o đượ  c các chuyên gia nghiên c ứ  u v ề   karst. D ự   án đượ  c th ự  c hi ệ n trên c ả  hai l  ĩ  nh v ự  c: khoa h ọ c v ề   Trái đấ  t và xã h ộ i, t  ậ  p trung vào các v ấ  n đề   liên quan đế  n n ướ  c nh ư   l  ũ  l  ụ t,  xói mòn, cung c ấ   p n ướ  c... ở   vùng karst Thu ậ n Châu (S  ơ  n La, tây b ắ  c Vi ệ t Nam).  Nh ữ  ng d  ự   án c ủ a VLIR đ  ã m ở   ra m ộ t c ơ   h ộ i tuy ệ t v ờ  i cho các cán b ộ  khoa h ọ c c ủ a  RIGMR kh ả  n ă ng đượ  c h ọ c t  ậ  p và nghiên c ứ  u t  ạ i V  ươ  ng qu ố  c B ỉ   , b ằ  ng cách c ấ   p h ọ c b ổ  ng bên ngoài d  ự   án thông qua các t  ổ   ch ứ  c khác nhau.  Đế  n nay, đ  ã có 21 nghiên c ứ  u viên nh ậ n đượ  c h ọ c b ổ  ng để   tham d  ự   các khóa h ọ c nâng cao v ề    đị a ch ấ  t (KUL), các ch ươ  ng trình đ  ào t  ạ o Th ạ c s  ỹ   Khoa h ọ c v ề   Tài nguyên N  ướ  c (IUPWARE, VUB-KUL), Tài nguyên  Đấ  t (PHYLARES, VUB-UG), và Qu ả n lý Sinh thái Bi ể  n (ECOMAMA, VUB-UA). Thêm vào đ  ó, Ti ế  n s  ỹ   V  ũ  Thanh Tâm đ  ã b ả o v ệ  thành công lu ậ n án ti ế  n s ĩ   c ủ a mình n ă m 2003, và hi ệ n nay có 4 nghiên c ứ  u sinh khác đ  ang th ự  c hi ệ n các lu ậ n án b ậ c ti ế  n s  ỹ   t  ạ i  Phòng K   ỹ   thu ậ t Thu  ỷ  v ă n và Thu  ỷ  L ự  c c ủ a tr  ườ  ng VUB. S  ự   h ợ   p tác thành công v ề    đ  ào t  ạ o và nghiên c ứ  u gi ữ  a RIGMR v ớ  i các tr  ườ  ng đạ i h ọ c t  ạ i  B ỉ   , mà tr  ự  c ti ế   p là v ớ  i phòng K   ỹ   thu ậ t Thu  ỷ  v ă n và Thu  ỷ  l  ự  c, đượ  c th ể   hi ệ n rõ ràng nh ấ  t thông qua các công trình khoa h ọ c c ủ a các cán b ộ  RIGMR trong th ờ  i gian h ọ c t  ậ  p và nghiên c ứ  u t  ạ i B ỉ  . Bài báo này là s ự   t  ổ  ng h ợ   p các k  ế  t qu ả  chính c ủ a nh ữ  ng nghiên c ứ  u nói trên trong m ộ t s ố   l  ĩ  nh v ự  c sau: thu  ỷ  v ă n, đị a ch ấ  t thu  ỷ  v ă n, vi ễ  n thám -   h ệ  thông tin đị a lý (GIS), thu  ỷ   đị a hoá và ch ấ  t l  ượ  ng n ướ  c, tai bi ế  n t  ự   nhiên và c ơ   h ọ c đấ  t, h ệ  sinh th ái và qu ả n lý môi tr  ườ  ng bi ể  n .   1  Tr  ườ  ng  Đạ i h ọ c T  ổ  ng h ợ   p T  ự   do Bruxel, V  ươ  ng qu ố  c B ỉ    2  Vi ệ n Nghiên c ứ  u  Đị a ch ấ  t và Khoáng s ả n 564  VIBEKAP, TRAINING AND RESEARCH RESULTS BY RIGMR STAFF AT BELGIAN UNIVERSITIES BATELAAN O. 1 , HUNG L. Q. 2 , TAM V. T. 2 , VAN N. T. H. 2 ,  NGUYET V. T. M. 2 , LONG N. T. 2 , DE SMEDT F. 1 I. INTRODUCTION The VLIR supported project, ‘ Rural development in the mountain karst area of NW Vietnam by sustainable water and land management and social learning: study of its conditions and facilitation’  between the main Vietnamese partner, the Research Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (RIGMR) and several Belgian partners from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL, promotor), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Belgian Geological Survey, took place between 1998-2003 and is better known as the Vietnamese-Belgian Karst Project (VIBEKAP). Although, VIBEKAP officially ended in 2003, it still continues by way of research from PhD students and the follow-up, also VLIR supported, LLINC project ‘Improving multi-stakeholder collaboration for conservation of the Pu Luong - Cuc Phuong limestone landscape, NW Vietnam’ . VIBEKAP generated many interesting results, as well as built up a much needed karst expertise. The project was multidisciplinary, with geo-scientific and social components, focusing on water related problems (flooding, water supply, erosion, etc.) in the karst area of Thuan Chau and Son La (N.W. Vietnam). These VLIR projects opened a wonderful chance for capacity of the RIGMR staff to study in Belgium by way of additional scholarships of different organizations. Up to now, 21 staff-members obtained a scholarship to study Geology (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven) or some MSc programs in Water Resources Engineering (IUPWARE, Vrije Universiteit Brussel - Katholieke Universiteit Leuven), Physical Land Resources (PHYLARES, Vrije Universiteit Brussel - Universiteit Gent), and Ecological Marine Management (ECOMAMA, Vrije Universiteit Brussel - Universiteit Antwerpen) ( Table 1 ). Additionally, Dr. Vu Thanh Tam successfully defended his PhD thesis in 2003 and four RIGMR staff members have started their PhD researches in Belgium at the Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering (VUB). The success of the training and research cooperation between RIGMR and Belgian universities,  particularly the Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, can be best observed by the results of the research work executed by RIGMR staffs while studying in Belgium. In the remaining of this paper, we summarize most important results so far in the research domains: hydrology, hydrogeology, remote sensing and GIS, geochemistry and water quality, natural hazard and soil mechanics, ecosystem and environmental marine management.  1  Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium 2  Research Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources 565  Table 1. Staff of the Research Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources trained at Belgian Universities No Name Study Programme Scholarship Time period 1 Mr. Vu Thanh Tam MSc IUPWARE ABOS 1994-1996 2 Mr. Tran Trong Thang Training course Geology KUL 1998-1999 3 Ms. Vu Thi Minh Nguyet MSc IUPWARE VUBAROS 1998-2000 4 Mr. Trinh Hai Son MSc ECOMAMA VUBAROS 1998-2000 5 Mr. Quach Duc Tin MSc IUPWARE VUBAROS 1999-2001 6 Mr. Le Quoc Hung MSc IUPWARE VLIR 1999-2001 7 Mr. Nguyen Quoc Dinh MSc PHYLARES VUBAROS 1999-2001 8 Mr. Nguyen Dai Trung MSc PHYLARES VLIR 1999-2001 9 Mr. Ho Huu Hieu MSc ECOMAMA VLIR 1999-2001 10 Mr. Do Van Thang Training course Geology KUL 1999-2000 11 Ms. Nguyen Thanh Huong MSc IUPWARE VUBAROS 2000-2002 12 Mr. Nguyen Thanh Long MSc PHYLARES VUBAROS 2000-2002 13 Mr. Phan Duc Le MSc PHYLARES VUBAROS 2000-2002 14 Ms. Nguyen Thi Hai Van MSc ECOMAMA VUBAROS 2000-2002 15 Mr. Nguyen Duy Binh MSc PHYLARES VUBAROS 2001-2003 16 Ms. Nguyen My Linh MSc PHYLARES VLIR 2001-2003 17 Ms. Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong MSc ECOMAMA VLIR 2001-2003 18 Mr. Nguyen Xuan Nam Training course IUPWARE VLIR 2002-2003 19 Ms. Tran Minh Thien MSc PHYLARES VLIR 2002-2004 20 Mr. Nguyen Tam MSc PHYLARES VUBAROS 2002-2004 21 Mr. Vu Thanh Tam PhD HYDR - VUB VIBEKAP 1999-2003 22 Ms. Vu Thi Minh Nguyet PhD HYDR - VUB BTC 2002-2006 23 Mr. Le Quoc Hung PhD HYDR - VUB VN 322 2002-2006 24 Mr. Nguyen Thanh Long PhD HYDR-VUB BTC 2003-2007 25 Mr. Nguyen Dai Trung PhD GENT BTC 2004-2008 26 Mr. Le Nguyen Hoang Master PHYLARES VLIR 2004-2006 1. Hydrology Huong (2002) and Liu et al. (2004)  applied the WetSpa model to evaluate flood  processes in karstic areas. The major obstacles to modeling flood processes in karstic areas are a lack of understanding and model representations of the distinctive features and processes associated with runoff generation in those regions and a lack of field data. In this study, a distributed flood modeling approach, WetSpa, was performed by modifying model representations of some of the predominant features and processes of the karstic Suoi Muoi catchment with 566  complex-terrain and mixed land use in the northwest Vietnam. The model was calibrated based on 15 months of hourly hydro-meteorological data, topography, land use and soil types in GIS format, and used to continuously simulate both baseflow and fast-responding overland, conduit and channel flows during stormflow periods. Considerable variability in simulation accuracy was found among storm events and within the catchment. The simulation results showed that the model represents reasonably well stormflows generated by rainfall events in the study catchment, and the potential of using distributed flood simulation for estimating future flood conditions under changing land use conditions. It is argued therefore that the WetSpa approach is suitable for application in karstic areas under human and natural pressure [17, 20].  2. Hydrogeology Nguyet (2000) and Nguyet et al. (2004 a )  showed the first tracer tests that were ever carried out in the karstic northwest of Vietnam and performed within the framework of the Vietnamese-Belgian Karst Project (1998-2002). Common salt, fluorescent dyes uranine (fluorescein) and sulforhodamine B were used as tracers. The experimental results have proven the existence of flow paths between injection points and springs in Suoi Muoi and Nam La catchments. Tracer recovery rates are determined and vary from 29 to 96%; the estimated flow velocities vary from 72 to 288 m/h [22, 23]. Time series analyses is used by Tam et al. (2004 a )  to characterize the transient flow regimes of the Nam La cavern conduit, northwest Vietnam. The conduit transforms the input signal to an output signal, and the degree of transformation provides information on the nature of the flow system. The input for the analysis is net precipitation and the flow hydrograph at the cave entrance, while the output series is the flow hydrograph at the resurgence. Cross-correlation and cross-spectrum analysis are used to investigate the stationarity and linearity of the input-output transformation of the system, resulting in hydrodynamic properties such as system memory, response time, and mean delay between input and output. It is shown that during high flow  periods, the flow in the conduit is pressurized. Consequently, the linear input - output assumption holds only for low flows. To highlight the hydrodynamics of the cavern conduit for the high flow  periods, wavelet spectrum and wavelet cross-spectrum analyses are applied [32]. Tam et al. (2001, 2005)  presented the results of an investigation of underground conduits, which connect the swallow holes and the resurgence of a blind river in the tropical, highly karstified limestone Nam La catchment in the NW of Vietnam. The Nam La River disappears underground in several swallow holes near the outlet of the catchment. In the rainy season this results in flooding upstream of the sinkholes. A multi-thematic study of the possible connections between the swallow holes and the resurgence was carried out to investigate the geological structure, tectonics, cave structure analysis and discharge time series. The existence of the underground conduits is also tested and proven by tracer experiments [29, 36]. Hung (2001)  suggested that lineament density map could be used to predict the cave development in fractured limestone [7]. Tam et al. (2005)  predict the location of the underground conduits based on a lineament analysis. A remote sensing derived lineament-length density map is used to track routes from the swallow holes to the resurgence, having shortest 567  length but highest lineament density. This results in a plan-view prediction of underground conduits that matches with the cave and fault development. The functioning of the conduits is further explained by analysing flooding records of a nearby doline, which turns out to act as a temporary storage reservoir mitigating flooding of the catchment outlet area [36]. Tam et al. (2003, 2004 d )  presented an application of the double-porosity concept and the Cooper-Jacob straight-line approximation in an interpretation and analysis of recovery tests in fractured and karstified limestone in NW Vietnam. Based on the occurrence of two parallel straight lines in semi-log plots of drawdown vs. pumping time and residual drawdown vs. recovery time, a method was developed to calculate hydraulic properties of the fractures and the matrix blocks. Early-time drawdown is related to a water release from fracture storage while late time drawdown as a consequence of a release from both fractures and matrix blocks. Both media share a conductive property of the fractures. The drawdowns of early- and late times are described by the well-known Theis well flow equation, and under appropriate conditions can be approximated by the Cooper-Jacob approximation, resulting respectively two parallel straight lines. Relevant equations are derived for residual drawdown on the basis of the principle of superposition, which facilitate a curve matching method to calculate principal aquifer characteristics, such as recovery transmissivity and storativity [31, 35]. Speleothems are precipitated from seepage waters from the overlying surface. They contain high-resolution palaeo-environmental information, by a number of properties such as oxygen and carbon stable isotope ratios etc., which may be used to investigate aspects of environmental change. Son La karstic area is one of most suitable areas to investigate and obtain a reconstruction of the climatic events in Vietnam. Tam (2004) studied, a stalagmite from Ta Chinh Cave, Tua Chua, Son La, Vietnam. It provided a discontinuous stable isotope record from 132230 + 1100 to 35060 + 200 y BP with the lower part belonging to the last interglacial period meanwhile the upper part corresponds to a glacial period. Oxygen isotope analysis indicates that the high amount of rainfall not only occurs in the interglacial also in the glacial. Carbon isotope analysis indicated the presence of an active vegetation cover dominant by C3 plants [28].  3. Remote sensing and GIS a. Lineament analysis Hung (2001) and Hung et al. (2002, 2003 b , 2004 a ) set up an effective methodology to map and analyse lineaments for (hydro) geological research. The Lineament Analysis Software (LAS), which was developed by the Department of Remote Sensing and Geomatics of RIGMR since 1996, is providing a powerful tool for lineament study and analysis. Lineaments are explored by statistical descriptors, which are used to remove most of non-geological lineaments. By using LAS, the quality of the lineament map is increased considerably such that it better serves geological structure studies. The application of lineaments is further increased by defining lineament indices and lineament density maps. Three common indices (length of lineaments, number of lineaments and number of intersections of lineaments) and two transformed indices (average of the lineaments length, ratio between number of intersections of 568
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