Theban Tomb 184 (Nefermenu) and the Upper Section of the South Slope of El-Khokha Hillock – 2005, Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarium Hungaricae (Budapest) 58 (2007) 1–42.

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     DOI: 10.1556/AArch.58.2007.1.1 Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hung. 58 (2007) 1–42 0001-5210/$20.00 © 2007 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest THEBAN TOMB 184 (NEFERMENU) AND THE UPPER SECTION OF THE SOUTH SLOPE OF EL-KHOKHA HILLOCK – 2005 1   Z. I. FÁBIÁN fabianzoltanimre@gmail.com Abstract:  Hungarian excavations in the Theban necropolis have been extended to wide territories on the south slope of the El-Khokha hillock. In the 2005 season, the tracing of the epigraphic material of the mural decoration in the 19 th  Dynasy rock cut tomb of Nefermenu (TT 184) was completed. This monument, according to its characteristic religious, architectural and artistic layout, belongs to the so called “Khokha tomb-group” of TT 23 (Tjay), TT 32 (Djehutimes), TT 183 (Nebsumenu) and TT 264 (Ipiy). In previous seasons, the remains of a pyramid-like superstructure of a New Kingdom tomb were exposed, which probably belonged to Nefermenu’s monument. The research of the chronological position of this superstructure drew the attention to the structures in the upper section of the hillock, where architectural survey was carried out in the small and ruined New Kingdom rock cut tombs: TT 204, TT 205, TT 206, and (Kampp) –41–, –42–, –43–. Excavation was also possible in one of these: –43–, and in a newly discovered, Middle Kingdom monument, a saff-tomb with eight-pillared façade, where material of secondary burials dated to the Third Intermediate Period also came to light. The analysis of finds from earlier seasons concentrated on wooden frag-ments, shabtis, funerary cones and cartonnages. Keywords: Theban necropolis, 19 th  Dynasy rock cut tomb of Nefermenu, Khokha tomb-group, pyramid-like structure, chronology, Middle Kingdom monument, Third Intermediate Period, Hungarian excavations in Egypt The research in and around Nefermenu’s rock-cut tomb dated to the 19 th  Dynasty began in 1995. 2  The traditionally planned T-shaped rock-cut tomb-temple with its sloping passage and burial chamber is situated on the south slope of El-Khokha hillock, in the central part of the Theban necropolis, surrounded by decorated tombs which were constructed in quite different periods ( Fig. 1 ) .  It is just above TT 48 (Amenemhat-Surer, reign of 1  This paper is a shortened version of the report submitted to the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt after the 2005 season. The season was carried out from 15 th  February to 28 th  March, in 36 workdays, when 12–14 workmen were employed on six days of the week from 7 a. m. to 2 p. m. The members of the staff were as follows: Z. I. Fábián, field director; I. Kozák, restorer; Gy. Csáki, architect; N. Darvas, student of Egyptology (ELTE), recorder; K. Dubrovay, student of archaeology (University of Pécs), recorder; B. Németh, Egyptologist, recorder; Sz. Patkós, student of Egyptology (ELTE), recorder; A. Szabó, student of archaeology (University of Pécs), recorder. The Supreme Council of Antiquities was represented by inspectors Maged Ahmed Hasan and Mohamed Mohamed Khalil, Luxor. The report was prepared applying the results, and written on the basis of the individual reports by the members of the staff, each responsible for a certain field of research. Thanks are also due to them. This work would have been impossible without the financial, material and other support kindly offered by the Hungarian Ministries of Education, and of National Heritage, the National Scientific Research Fund of Hungary (OTKA), ERDA Ltd and WÉBER 2000 Ltd. 2  For the location of TT 184 (Nefermenu), its chronological position in the necropolis, previous work in and around it, the de-scription of significant architectural and decorative elements, its relation to other monuments, and the attested titles of the owner, see F ÁBIÁN  1997 and F ÁBIÁN  2005. On details of the Mission’s work at the site, see also my reports submitted to the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt on 3 rd  April 1996, 8 th  April 1997, 27 th  April 1998, April 1999, 6 th  April 2000, 26 th  April 2001, 28 th  March 2002, and 7 th  April 2004; and cf. PM, 290–291, Plan: 282, Map IV. D-5, c, 9; Survey of Egypt 1921, Map of El-Khôkha and Assâsîf c-9; and K AMPP  1996, 474, Beilage, Plan IV. H-3.  2 Z. I. FÁBIÁN    Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 58, 2007 Fig. 1. Map of the upper section of the south slope of El-Khokha, including the remains of the eastern Saff 1, below Tomb (Kampp) –43– and those of the New Kingdom superstructures south of the uppermost row of tombs. Survey: Gy. Csáki 2004, updated in 2005 Amenhotep III), 3  and its nearest neighbours on the same or similar level of the south slope of the Khokha are as follows: TT 185 (Seny-iqer: Old Kingdom or First Intermediate Period), 4  which is a part of a modern house called Beth Boghdady, and (Kampp) –63– (reign of Thutmosis III ?) 5  on the east, TT 412 (Qen-Amun: Amenho- 3  S ÄVE -S ÖDERBERGH  1957. 4  PM, 291. For the dating of Old Kingdom tombs of El-Khokha and other details, see A RNOLD 1972; N EWBERRY  1903; F ISCHER 1957;   N.   D AVIES , BMMA Suppl. 13 (March 1918) 23–24; W INLOCK 1947,   1;   F ISCHER 1968, 97–99, 131, n. 578; H ELCK 1954,   102;   S CHENKEL 1962,   11,   40,   49–51,   107;   J AROŠ -D ECKERT 1984, 102–106; G OMAA 1980,   13,   44;   K ANAWATI 1980, 142sq.; S ALEH 1977. 5  K AMPP  1996, 666.    THEBAN TOMB 184  3  Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 58, 2007 tep II), 6  TT 413 (Unis-ankh: Pepy II), 7  (Kampp) –59– (Men-kheper-Re-Seneb, usurped by Bak-en-Amun, first phase: Dyn. 18, second phase: Ramesside) 8  and (Kampp) –61– (Amenhotep, Ramesside ?) 9  on the west. North of TT 184, partly above it is TT 241 (Jahmes, Hatshepsut/Thutmosis III). 10  TT 184 is also in the close vicinity of other Ramesside tombs, which, according to their artistic-architectural and religious-conceptual layout appear to be members of a distinctive tomb-group, the “El-Khokha group”. Besides Nefermenu’s TT 184, these include: TT 23 (Tjay), 11  TT 32 (Djehutimes), 12  TT 183 (Nebsumenu), 13  TT 264 (Ipiy), 14  and in many features TT 296 (Nefersekheru) 15  and TT 370 (Neb-neshem ?). 16  These rock-cut tombs can all be dated to the reign of Ramesses II or later in the 19 th  Dynasty. The choice of the site was due to the fact that regarding its architectural and artistic layout as well as its religious concepts and historical significance, TT 184 is evidently a rather close parallel to the main subject of the investigation of the Hungarian Archaeological Mission in Egypt throughout the previous decade, namely TT 32 (Djehutimes). THE PRESENT STATE OF THE MONUMENT The rock cut parts of TT 184 including the sloping passage and the burial chamber have not undergone considerable change since March 2004. However, some sections of the monument (the “northern” 17  half of the transverse hall, the forecourt with suspected remains of pylons and sculpted elements) are located underneath the modern house called Beth Bogh-dady. The latter huge edifice must have considerable influence on the state of recent supporting structures and even on the bedrock bearing painted reliefs. Thus, I cannot avoid quoting some remarks from my previous years-reports, which are as valid at present as they were before: The modern brick wall blocking the “northern” half of the transverse hall indicates that it is continuously losing stability, probably due to the movement of Beth Bogh-dady. Now the wall is still threatening to collapse and destroy other parts of the monument ( Fig. 2 ). The neces-sary steps are hereby proposed to be taken by the Inspectorate of Qurna, as the authority of the Hungarian Mis-sion of TT 184 does not include any intrusion into the modern houses of the vicinity. The same is true for the possible decoration of the forecourt of TT 184, also located underneath Beth Boghdady. Thus, a proposition is hereby repeatedly being put forward to make arrangements in order to have the above mentioned modern house removed by the local authorities so as to preserve at least the actual state of TT 184 and other ancient monuments in the vicinity, such as TT 185 (Seny-iker) for instance, which is also a part of Beth Boghdady. A further remark should also be added here regarding the state of some neighbouring monuments, e.g. TT 412 (Qen-Amun) and TT 413 (Unis-ankh). The paintings of these monuments have been permanently ex-posed to considerable sunshine and even during the past years since I commenced work on TT 184, some fading of the colours could be observed. Here, as I experience with pleasure, roofing has been prepared in both monu-ments by the Inspectorate of Qurna to protect the decoration. 6  S ALEH  1983, 15–28, Pls. I–IV; for the dating, see S HEDID  1988, 95; and cf. K AMPP 1996, 413. 7  S ALEH  1977. For the dating, see above, n. 4. 8  Excavated by the late E. Gaál. For numbering, see K AMPP  1996, 660–662. 9  Until recently, excavated by the late E. Gaál. For its owner, see H ABACHI –G HALIOUNGUI  1969–1970, 17, No 4; B AKRY , in RSO 44 (1969) 179–180; with reference in J. L ECLANT , Or 41 (1972) 263.g; G HALIOUNGUI  1983, 27, No 47; M ANNICHE  1988, 12, referring to it as “TT 415 not yet officially numbered”; cf.   K AMPP  1996, 662–663. 10  S HORTER  1930, 54–62; K ONDO  1987, 65, Fig. 2; Y OSHIMURA  1991, 17; Y OSHIMURA  1992, 661–664; Y OSHIMURA –K ONDO  1992, 112–113, and further literature, in K AMPP  1996, 517–519. 11  PM, 38sqq.; K AMPP  1998, 206–209; for several texts see K ITCHEN 1982, (KRI) IV.4, 107–119, and see further H AIKAL  1985, 361–372. 12  K ÁKOSY   et al.  2004; and Kákosy’s preliminary reports in ActaArchHung yearly from 37 (1985), both with further literature. 13  K AMPP  1996, 471–474; PM, 289–290, recently A SSMANN 2002, 53–60. 14  PM, 345; K AMPP  1996, 541–542. 15  F EUCHT  1985. 16  H OLTHOER  1984, 73–96. 17  Quotation marks indicate cultic orientation inside the monu-ment.  4 Z. I. FÁBIÁN    Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 58, 2007 Fig. 2. Modern brick wall blocking the “northern” part of the first, transverse chapel from Beth Boghdady EPIGRAPHIC WORK AND ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH IN TT 184 (NEFERMENU) Tracing, collating and final inking of the mural decoration; reconstruction of stone fragments In previous years’ seasons, tracings were made of the entire mural decoration in the accessible parts of TT 184, and only the forecourt and the “northern” half of the transverse hall not yet excavated are to be exposed and documented. The collation of the tracings has now been completed. With a second collation, the already printable computer designs of the mural decoration were finalised adding some further details to the material. (For sample, see Figs 3–4 ) For future seasons, apart from the still inaccessible sections of the monument, the considerable amount of decorated stone fragments may provide with more work. The stone fragments had been stored inside the monument by an earlier excavator before the Hungarian Mission began research at this site. Having been identified in earlier seasons, most of these fragments were stored in the monuments they once be-longed to (TT 48 and TT 412 respectively). However, the preliminary study and documentation of the remaining 76 items offer a good opportunity to reconstruct the destroyed elements of TT 184, especially around the entrance actually located beneath Beth Boghdady. ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY IN THE UPPER SECTION OF EL-KHOHA HILLOCK The research of the upper row of tombs is reasoned by the results of the last seasons and further ques-tions have arisen since. The study of TT 184 began in the 1990s with the mere aim of collecting comparative epigraphic material to that of TT 32 (Djehutimes). The examination of other post-Amarna monuments led to the    THEBAN TOMB 184  5  Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 58, 2007 Fig. 3–4. Sample of the inked version of the computer designs prepared on the basis of the tracings: offering scene in the lower register of the transverse chamber
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