The lherzolite–websterite xenolith suite from Northern Patagonia (Argentina): Evidence of mantle–melt reaction processes

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  The lherzolite–websterite xenolith suite from Northern Patagonia (Argentina): Evidence of mantle–melt reaction processes
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  This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attachedcopy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial researchand education use, including for instruction at the authors institutionand sharing with colleagues.Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling orlicensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third partywebsites are prohibited.In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of thearticle (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website orinstitutional repository. Authors requiring further informationregarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies areencouraged to visit:http://www.elsevier.com/copyright  Author's personal copy The lherzolite – websterite xenolith suite from Northern Patagonia (Argentina):Evidence of mantle – melt reaction processes C. Dantas a,b , M. Grégoire a, ⁎ , E. Koester c , R.V. Conceição  d , N. Rieck Jr.  d a CNRS-UMR 5562, Dynamique Terrestre et Planétaire, Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université Toulouse III, 14, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France b CNRS-UMR 6524, Magmas et Volcans, Equipe Transferts Lithosphériques, Université Jean Monnet, 23, rue du Docteur Paul Michelon, 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2, France c Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Ciências Humanas, Departamento de Geogra  󿬁 a e Economia, Núcleo de Estudos da Terra, Rua Alberto Rosa, 154, CEP: 96010-770,Pelotas, RS, Brazil d Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Geociências, Centro de Estudos em Petrologia e Geoquímica, Laborat  ό rio de Geologia Isot  ό  pica, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500,CEP: 91590-970, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil A B S T R A C TA R T I C L E I N F O  Article history: Received 1 November 2007Accepted 10 June 2008Available online 26 June 2008 Keywords: PatagoniaMantle xenolithsWebsteritesLherzolitesTrace elementsMetasomatism A suite of mantle ultrama 󿬁 c xenoliths hosted in Cenozoïc alkali basalts and pyroclastic rocks associated witha back-arc tectonic environment occur at Cerro de los Chenques and Cerro Clark localities, North Patagonia(44.5 – 46.5°S). The suite of mantle xenoliths consists predominantly of anhydrous spinel-bearing lherzolitesand olivine-bearing websterites. These two rock types share at least one stage of their history. This is inparticular highlighted by the major and trace element compositions of their clinopyroxenes but also by thecontinuum of composition observed for olivine, orthopyroxene and spinel. Indeed the clinopyroxene majorelement compositions show an evolution from lherzolites (Mg#: 91 – 93 and Al 2 O 3  N 5%) to the websterites(Mg#: 90 – 91) that have a higher Na 2 O ( N 1.7 wt.%) and Al 2 O 3  ( N 6 wt.%) contents. The lherzolite andwebsterite clinopyroxene trace element compositions are similar. They display LREE-depleted patterns (Ce N /Yb N : 0.3 – 0.7; Ce N /Sm N : 0.3 – 0.7; Sm N /Yb N : 0.5 – 1), except for one lherzolite sample, which shows a near- 󿬂 atpattern (Ce N /Yb N : 1.1; Ce N /Sm N : 1.2; Sm N /Yb N : 0.9). Metasomatic processes appear to be the most reasonablesrcin to form the Cerro de los Chenques and Cerro Clark lherzolites/websterites association, in whichwebsterites probably represent channels of focused melt percolation, and lherzolites the host rockmetasomatized by reactive porous  󿬂 ow. We propose that Cerro de los Chenques and Cerro Clark mantle hasundergone at least two metasomatic events: (1) a sub-alkaline (tholeiitic) metasomatism followed by (2) analkaline metasomatic event.© 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Important sources of information concerning the nature of thelithospheric mantle are given by peridotite xenoliths carried to thesurface by volcanic activity (e.g. Grégoire et al., 1998, 2000; Xu et al.,2003; Ionov et al., 2005a,b). Peridotite xenoliths are commonly asso-ciatedwithpyroxenitexenolithswhichareinmostcasesrelatedtothecirculation of melts and/or  󿬂 uids within the upper mantle both inintraplate and subduction settings (e.g. Brandon et al., 1999; VanKeken, 2003, Kogiso et al., 2004). Thus, mantle xenoliths providedirect information on mantle processes, but they commonly have acomplex history of depletion/enrichment related to partial meltingand metasomatic events. Heterogeneities related to the presence of distinct mantle domains amalgamated during tectonic events mayalso add to the complexity of their history (e.g. Downes et al., 2003).South America is an interesting region for studies of mantleprocesses linked to tectonic activity, because this region represents anextensive and active subduction zone characterized by havingabundant mantle xenoliths hosted by volcanic rocks. Suites of ultrama 󿬁 c mantle xenoliths from Patagonia have been the subject of numerous studies (e.g.; Skewes and Stern, 1979; Muñoz, 1980; Sternet al.,1986,1989,1999; Bjerg et al., 2005; Bertotto, 2002; Gorring andKay,2000;Lauroraetal.,2001;KilianandStern,2002;Conceiçãoetal.,2005;Schillingetal.,2005;Rivalentietal.,2004,2007),butthenatureand evolution of the various mantle domains, and the in 󿬂 uence of subduction versus asthenospheric materials on the mantle hetero-geneity still remain a topic of debate and therefore a fruitful area of research.The present study focuses on two localities (Cerro (Co.) de losChenques and Cerro (Co.) Clark, Fig. 1) from the Argentinean part of Patagonia where alkaline basaltic lavas host mantle xenoliths up to10 cm in size. Some xenoliths from Co. de los Chenques have beenpreviously described by Rivalenti et al. (2004, 2007) while those fromCo. Clark are described for the  󿬁 rst time. The present studyemphasizes petrographic and geochemical studies of a suite of lherzolites and websterites, in order to understand the nature andevolution of mantle beneath this region, and its relation to tectonic Lithos 107 (2009) 107 – 120 ⁎  Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 5 6133 2977; fax: +33 5 6133 2900. E-mail address:  gregoire@dtp.obs-mip.fr (M. Grégoire).0024-4937/$  –  see front matter © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2008.06.012 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Lithos  journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/lithos  Author's personal copy environment. The petrographic and mineral major and trace elementsignatures of the xenoliths record a history of mantle evolution withfeatures suggesting distinct events affecting the mantle. 2. Geological setting and host lavas The Patagonian region which constitutes the southernmost part of the South American continent (Fig.1) is geodynamicallycharacterizedby two oceanic plates, with different ages, velocities and dips subduc-tingunder theSouthAmericanContinental Plate(e.g. De Ignacioetal.,2001; Heintz et al., 2005): (i) the Nazca Oceanic Plate, an ancient partof the Farallon plate, with a subducting velocity of ~9 cm/yr anddipping 30° and (ii) the Antarctic Oceanic Plate, with a velocity of ~2 cm/yr and shallow dip (e.g. Heintz et al., 2005).Patagonia is characterized by large Neogene plateaus of tholeiiticbasalts located in a back back-arc environment, east of the Andean arczone. These plateaus extend from 34°S (Buta Ranquil) to 54°S (PaliAike Volcanic Field) and are cross-cutted by alkaline, OIB-like, post-plateau volcanic rocks, often bearing mantle xenoliths. The Co. de losChenques is located along the west side of the Meseta Canquel (Lemaand Cortés, 1987; Ardolino et al., 2000), which is one of these post-plateauvolcanicseries.TheCerrodeLosChenques(44°52 ′ 19 ″ S/70°03 ′ 57 ″ W, PM12, Fig. 1, PM: Projecto Manto: scienti 󿬁 c project driven bythe University of Porto Alegre, Brazil) is an isolated monogeneticvolcano (Rivalenti et al., 2004, 2007), occurring in the middle of thePatagonia Massif, which comprises Mesoproterozoic to Neoproter-ozoicigneousandmetamorphicbasementrocks,PalaeozoictoTriassicgranitoïdsandlateTriassictomiddleJurassicvolcanicrocks(Cingolaniet al., 1991). No radiometric age determination is available, but it is aQuaternary post-plateau volcano (Stern et al.,1990; Gorring and Kay,2001), as evidenced by its lava  󿬂 ows and the associated pyroclasticrocks covering sediments related to the Quaternary glaciations(Ploszkiewicz, 1987). The compositions of vesicular and porphyriclavas of Co. de los Chenques hosting the mantle xenoliths have beenstudied by Rivalenti et al. (2007). They vary from basanites to alkalibasalts, with Mg# [100×MgO/(MgO+FeO Tot )] values ranging from 64to 67. Their trace element concentrations and patterns are similar tothose of the cratonic basalts de 󿬁 ned by Stern et al. (1990) andcharacterised characterized by OIB-like isotopic signatures. Rivalentiet al. (2007) have noticed that these lavas do not display the LILEenrichment and the Nb – Ta depletion typical of lavas recording a slabimprint. The Cerro Clark (46°43 ′ 01 q S – 69°29 ′ 36 q W; PM24, Fig. 1) islocated on the northern edge of the North East region described byGorring et al. (1997). The geology of Co. Clark has not been describedto date and no radiometric age determination is available. The lavasof Cerro Clark hosting the xenoliths are porphyritic basanites (SiO 2 :42 – 43 wt.%; Na 2 O+K 2 O: 4.7 – 5.8 wt.%). The  󿬁 ne-grained matrixconsists of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, oxides, glass and rarealkali feldspar while the phenocrysts are olivine and clinopyroxene.The Mg# values of the basanites range from 59 to 62 and their traceelement compositions are similar to those of oceanic island basalts(OIB) with high incompatible trace elements contents, Nb and Taenrichments, and negative Ti anomaly (Dantas, 2007). The isotopiccompositions (Sr and Nd) con 󿬁 rm their OIB af  󿬁 nity (Zindler and Hart, Fig.1.  Location map of Cerro de los Chenques and Cerro Clark mantlexenolith occurrences in northern Patagonia (modi 󿬁 ed from Stern et al.,1986; Gorring and Kay, 2000). The tectonicsetting, distribution of the Neogene back-arc plateau lavas(in black), and the arc volcanic centres of the Southern and Austral Volcanic Zones (SVZ and AVZ, respectively) are alsoshown.108  C. Dantas et al. / Lithos 107 (2009) 107  – 120  Author's personal copy 1986; Arculus and Powell, 1986). They have lower  87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios(0.70309 – 0.70321) and higher  143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios (0.51292 – 0.51295)than the majority of other Patagonian basalts ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr: 0.7031 to0.7051 and  143 Nd/ 144 Nd: 0.5126 to 0.5130; e.g. Stern,1989; Stern et al.,1990; D'Orazio et al., 2001, 2004, 2005; Kay et al., 2007). They plotnear the MORB and HIMU domains (e.g. Zindler and Hart, 1986;Arculus and Powell, 1986) and are similar to those of the AntarcticPeninsula post-subduction volcanic rocks (D'Orazio et al., 2004) andalkalibasaltsfromPaliAikevolcanic 󿬁 eld( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr:0.70316 – 0.70333; 143 Nd/ 144 Nd: 0.51291 – 0.51292; Stern et al., 1990).The srcin of the plateau and post-plateau Patagonian basalts inthese regions are still poorly known. Based on trace element and Sr,Nd,PbandOisotopecompositions, Stern etal. (1990)andGorringand Kay (2001) evidenced that both the tholeiitic plateau and the alkalinepost post-plateau lavas record an eastward decreasing slab compo-nent. The srcin of the southern Patagonian late Miocene to Pliocenebasalts has been attributed to the melting of asthenospheric sourcespossibly enriched by a weak plume and related to the opening of theslab window (Ramos and Kay, 1992; Gorring et al., 1997; D'Orazioet al., 2000, 2001). Pleistocene torecent (Quaternary) volcanic activityis related to the thermal and mechanical perturbation induced by thesubductedslabinthedeeplithosphericorasthenosphericlevelsofthemantle wedge (Stern et al.,1990, De Ignacio et al., 2001). Skewes and Stern (1979) attributed the srcin of the Pliocene and QuaternaryPatagonian alkali basalts to a mechanical and/or thermal perturbationof the sub continental mantle due to the subduction of the oceaniclithosphere below the western margin of the continent, rather than toa continental rifting process or a hot spot track. They also suggestedthat the Patagonian alkali basalts do not contain components derivedfrom subducted oceanic lithosphere (Baker et al.,1981; Hawkesworthet al.,1979). For Stern et al. (1990) and Rivalenti et al. (2007) the post- plateau basalts are cratonic basalts without any slab-derived compo-nents and seem to srcinate from relatively low degree of partialmelting of a heterogeneous lower continental lithosphere and/orasthenosphere, probably in response to thermal and mechanicalperturbation of the mantle associated with the subduction of oceaniclithosphere. Ramos and Kay (1992) and Gorring et al. (1997) on the other hand propose that the southern Patagonian basalts outcroppingin the southern Meseta Canquel have been generated in response tothe rising of asthenospheric material. Kay et al. (1992) explained theSomoncura Plateau in terms of local mantle instability (baby  “ hotspot ” ) due to plate adjustments in the Paci 󿬁 c and slow convergencerate for the  “ young ”  Nazca Plate (south of 38°S). De Ignacio et al.(2001) envisaged a complex tectono-magmatic evolution of the So-moncura Plateau and others OIB plateau in the extra-Andean domain(e.g. the Meseta Canquel). Indeed they propose that the combinationof a major change in plate convergence during the late Oligocene(~29 – 23 Ma) coupled with a slab roll back and a curved topographyof theNazcaplate,allowtheintakeofhotasthenosphericmantleintothemantle wedge. Finally, they explain the OIB geochemical signature bythe decompression melting of this upwelling OIB-like asthenosphericmantle. To explain this uprising Kay et al. (2007) invoked mantleinstabilities related to plate reorganisation whereas Guivel et al.(2006) proposed a new tectonic model involving  “ slab tearing ” . Thisnew model explains the OIB genesis by deep asthenospheric uprisingrelated to a tear-in-the-slab subparallel to the trench (see Fig.11 fromGuivel et al., 2006). In such a model the initiation of the slab tearingcorresponds to the  󿬁 rst eruption of alkali basalt such as those of Co.Clark (~11 – 12 Ma; Gorring et al., 1997; Gorring and Kay, 2001).However this model cannot explain the volcanism of the MesetaCanquel (~19 – 29 Ma). 3. Sampling and analytical methods Xenoliths collected from pyroclastic deposits (breccias and bombscoated by a lava shell) at Cerro de los Chenques and from lavas  󿬂 owsand dykes at Cerro Clark are fresh, rounded to elliptical and char-acterized by a length ranging from 4 to 15 cm. The contact betweenthe host lavas and xenoliths is always sharp, and scarcely displays areaction zone. Mineral chemical compositions were determined witha CAMECA SX 50 microprobe with SAMx automation at the Ob-servatoire Midi Pyrénées, University Toulouse III (France), using awavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS). The electron microprobewas used with an accelerating voltage of 15 kV, a beam current of 20 nA and an analysed surface of 2×2  μ  m 2 . Matrix corrections weredone by PAP (Pouchou and Pichoir, 1984). Concentrations of REE andother trace elements (Ba, Rb, Th, U, Nb, Ta, Sr, Zr, Hf, Ti, Y, Sc, V, Co andNi) of clinopyroxene were determined in situ on  N 120  μ  m thickpolished sample sections by LA-ICP-MS at the Observatoire MidiPyrénées, University Toulouse III (France). The Perkin Elmer 6000 ICP-MS instrument was coupled to a Cetac LSX-200 laser ablation modulethat uses a 266 nm frequency-quadrupled Nd-YAG laser. For eachsample, 30 replicates (seconds) were counted on the carrier gas toestablishabackgroundfollowedby70replicatesforablation.TheNIST610 and 612 glass standards were used to calibrate relative elementsensitivities for the analyses of the silicate minerals. Our analyticalprotocol consisted of analysing these standards, at the beginning of each session, at regular intervals (after every 10 analysis) during thesession and at the end of each session. For data reduction with thesoftware Glitter, we use CaO and MgO values determined by electronmicroprobe, as internal standards. Typical theoretical detection limitsrangefrom10 to 20 ppb for REE, Ba, Rb, Th, Sr, Zrand Y; 100 ppb for Scand V; and 2 ppm for Ti and Ni. The typical relative precision andaccuracy for a laser analysis range from 1 to 10%. A beam diameter of 100  μ  m and a scanning rate of 3  μ  m/s were used.  Table 1 Texture, modal composition and equilibrium temperature conditions (calculated usingthe Brey and Kohler two pyroxenes thermometer: BKN) of spinel lherzolites and spinelwebsterites from Cerro de los Chenques and Cerro Clark ultrama 󿬁 c suiteSample Lithotype Texture  T   (°C)BKNModeOl Opx Cpx SpCerro de losChenquPM12-48 SplherzolitePorphyroclastic n.c. 57.4 26.9 12.8 2.9PM12-12 Equigranular/porphyroclastic900 – 920 59.6 25.3 12.7 2.4PM12-15 Equigranular/porphyroclastic905 – 930 63.5 25.3 7.9 3.3PM12-13 Equigranular/porphyroclastic886 – 900 66.7 25.2 5.7 2.4Cerro Clark PM24-22 Porphyroclastic 800 – 760 57.1 28.9 12.2 1.9PM24-24 921 – 952 54 28 15 3PM24-23 826 – 797 57 35 6 2PM24-29 864 – 858 76.5 16 6 1.5PM24-25 878 – 892 67 16.5 15 1.5PM24-32 888 – 870 65 18 15 2PM24-27 865 – 885 67 15.7 15.3 2PM24-09 837 – 841 61 16 18 5PM24-21 821 – 787 49 33 15 3PM24-20 798 – 752 48.1 36.3 12 3.6Cerro de losChenquesPM12-02 Sp OlwebsteriteEquigranular/porphyroclastic920 – 956 21 48 25 6PM12-17 Equigranular/porphyroclastic950 – 1026 31 42 21 6PM12-27 Equigranular/porphyroclastic902 – 930 29 46 20 5PM12-05 Equigranular/porphyroclastic931 – 980 28 50 19 3PM12-41 Equigranular/porphyroclastic932 – 978 29 49 18 4PM12-19 Tabularequigranular961 – 1008 27 51 17 5Cerro Clark PM24-30 Porphyroclastic 870 – 87 15 65 15 5The mineral modal contents have been estimated by microscopic observation, in somecases by chemical balance between whole rock and mineral chemistry and by countingpoints (~3000 points). Ol: Olivine; Opx: Orthopyroxene; Cpx: Clinopyroxene; Sp: Spinel.109 C. Dantas et al. / Lithos 107 (2009) 107  – 120  Author's personal copy 4. Petrography and modal compositions The localities of Co. de los Chenques and Co. Clark are bothcharacterized by a suite of anhydrous xenoliths mainly consisting of spinel lherzolites and olivine websterites. Ten representative mantlexenoliths(fourlherzolitesandsixwebsterites)fromCo.delosChenquesand eleven (ten lherzolites and onewebsterite) from Co. Clark showingthe most widespread and interesting features were selected from alarger collection (Table 1 and Fig. 2). The textures of both rock types rangefrom porphyroclastic to equigranular(Mercierand Nicolas,1975).They are characterized by large crystals of olivine and orthopyroxenes(3 – 5 mm), surrounding few smaller clinopyroxene grains ( b 1 mm).Clinopyroxene and spinel display spongy rims ( b 0.1 mm wide) inmostof the samples, but in samplesPM12-12 andPM12-27. Carpenteret al. (2002) explain this spongy texture as resulting from a  󿬂 uid-induced partial melting event occurring under mantle conditionsprior to xenoliths entrainment by the host magma. 4.1. Spinel lherzolites Spinel-bearinglherzolites(PM12-12;PM12-13;PM12-15;PM12-48;Table 1) of Co. de los Chenques display textures transitional betweenporphyroclastic and mosaic mosaic-equigranular types. On the otherhand the lherzolite PM12-48 displays a typical porphyroclastic texturesimilar to those of the Co. Clark lherzolites (Mercier and Nicolas,1975;seeTable1).Orthopyroxeneandolivineformsubhedralporphyroclasts,3 – 5 mm in size, with kink-bands and are surrounded by smallerneoblasts (1 mm) of orthopyroxene and olivine showing 120° triple junctions.Clinopyroxenescommonlyoccurassmall( b 500 μ  mto1mm)rounded to sub-euhedral crystals. In sample PM12-48, clinopyroxenesup to 3 mm in size display spongy curvilinear rims and cracks. Brownspinel(0.3to0.8mminsize)commonlyoccursasanhedraltosubhedralinterstitial grains, developing holly-leaf or lobate shapes. They aremainly associated with clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene in alllherzolites, but in PM12-48 where the dark-brown spinel is randomlydistributed. Some spinel lherzolites (PM24-25, PM24-29 and PM24-27)contain poikilitic orthopyroxene with clinopyroxene, olivine and spinelinclusions. The heterogeneous sample PM24-32 consists of oneorthopyroxene+olivine-dominant zone and one clinopyroxene+spinel-dominant zone but because its olivine content is higher than40 vol% we decide to classify this sample to the lherzolite group. Thegrain size decreases from the  󿬁 rst (5 – 6 mm) to the second ( b 3 mm)zone.Brownspinels,~500 μ  mto3mm,arevermiculartopoikiliticinthissample. Melt pockets of 0.7 to 1.5 mm in size,  󿬁 lled by glass associatedwithcrystals(0.2mmofaveragesize)of olivine-2, clinopyroxene-2 andorthopyroxene-2, are widespread. 4.2. Spinel- and olivine- bearing websterites Thespinelandolivine-bearingwebsteritesconsistoforthopyroxene,clinopyroxene, olivine and minor spinel. Five websterites of Co. de losChenques (PM12-05, PM12-41, PM12-02, PM12-27, and PM12-17)display transitional between porphyroclastic and mosaic-equigranulartextures. Sample PM12-19 shows a protogranular texture, with largeundeformed euhedral orthopyroxenes up to 8 – 10 mm in size. At Co.Clark the websterite displays a coarse grained porphyroclastic texturesimilar to those of the two pyroxene-rich lherzolites (PM24-20 andPM24-21, Table 1). A rough continuum corresponding to an increase of the modal orthopyroxene content may be observed between thelherzolites and the websterites (Fig. 2, Table 1). In websterites with transitional textures, olivine and orthopyroxene porphyroclasts reachup4mminsize,andaresurroundedbyeuhedralneoblasts,upto1mmin size. The proportion of porphyroclasts is lower than that of theneoblasts. In equigranular websterites, neoblasts and rare porphyro-clasts of pyroxene and olivine have an average size of 2 – 4 mm.Regarding sample PM12-17, we have studied two thin sections. The 󿬁 rst section (PM12-17a) shows a mosaic-equigranular texture withsome orthopyroxene crystals reaching up 4 mm in size and displaysnumerousolivines(2 – 3mminsize).Thesecondthinsection(PM12-17b,Fig. 2) displays abundant and large orthopyroxene crystals (5 mm)surrounded by interstitial clinopyroxenes. Clinopyroxenes in all web-steritesaresubhedralwithanaveragesizeof0.5mm,reachingup2mmin some samples. The bigger clinopyroxenes display 120° triple junctions, whereas the smaller are rounded, or display curvilinearrims. Clinopyroxene associated with spinel commonly occurs as aninterstitial network around large orthopyroxene crystals. Vermicularbrown spinels are associated with rounded clinopyroxenes and displayolivineinclusionsbutnotinsamplesPM12-05andPM12-41.Thebiggest Fig. 2.  Ternary diagram (Ol – Cpx – Opx) from Streckeisen (1976) and photography of thick sections of one lherzolite and one websterite from Co. de los Chenques ultrama 󿬁 c suite.Empty squares and diamonds correspond to websterites and lherzolites from Co. de los Chenques, respectively. Black squares and diamonds represent websterites and lherzolitesfrom Co. Clark, respectively. Small empty diamond: lherzolites from Co. de los Chenques from Rivalenti et al. (2004).110  C. Dantas et al. / Lithos 107 (2009) 107  – 120
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