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   103 Templars and Hospitallers in the Cities of the West and the Latin East (Twelfth to Thirteenth Centuries)  Damien Carraz Université Blaise-Pascal – Clermont-Ferrand 2 Damien.CARRAZ@univ-bpclermont.fr   Abstract  Scholars usually consider the military orders as essentially involved in the agrarian economy and seigniorial society. However, this understanding is not entirely correct. All military orders were connected to the urban world from their srcins and they built close  spiritual and economic ties with urban societies. The aim of this article is to present some of the most recent research that has reappraised the role of the military orders in medieval towns. This survey is limited to the cases of the Temple and the Hospital, and it considers the question mainly in southern Europe (northern Italy, the Iberian Peninsula, and southern  France), including some brief comparisons with the Holy Land. The article rst discusses the ways in which commanderies contributed to the “urban fabric” by examining the conventual buildings and the orders’ policies of urbanization. Then, it turns to the social and  spiritual networks and to the economic practices that the brethren managed to develop in  places where several other churches were already deeply rooted. Finally, the study of urban commanderies enables us to better understand the transition from traditional monasticism to the new mendicant orders, with whom the military orders shared many similarities. Despite a few exceptions, it is nevertheless true that the economic activity and the spirituality of the military orders were in complete harmony with the urban expansion of the High Middle Ages. Can we consider the military orders as the “offspring” of the urban revolution of the twelfth century? Do they represent a sort of stepping stone that can help us understand the passage from traditional Benedictine monasticism to the new orders of the thirteenth century, as embodied by the mendicants? It was actually within an urban context that most of the armed associations, which were the forerunners of the military orders, were formed between 1100 and 1200. This was the case of the Hospital and of the Order of St. Lazarus in Jerusalem, of the Teutonic Order in Acre, of Avis in Evora, of Calatrava created in the town of that name in Castile, or of the Sword Brothers founded in Riga (Livonia). 1  Moreover, it was precisely in the holy This paper was read at the Universidade Nova of Lisbon, on 5 November 2010. My gratitude goes to Anthony Luttrell and Cynthia J. Johnson for their valuable help on the translation from French to English. 1   For an introduction to the history of the military orders, see Alain Demurger, Chevaliers du Christ. Les ordres religieux-militaires au Moyen Âge, XIe–XVIe siècles (Paris, 2002).  104 DAMIEN CARRAZ city of Jerusalem that the “proto-Templars” gathered around the Holy Sepulchre in about 1119/20. Without a doubt, the decisive foundation of the Templar Order inspired all the others, and their foundation took place in the Holy Land – in other words, in a melting pot of religious and social experiences in which the Church was essentially an urban institution. 2   Not only did the Templar Order create its headquarters in Jerusalem, it also identied itself fully with the Holy City, as seen from its title of  pauperes commilitones Christi templique Salomonici Hierosolimitani  (Poor Companions of Christ and of the Temple of Salomon of Jerusalem). The reverse of the Master’s seal showed the dome of the Templum Domini , which was also a reminder of the Temple of Salomon. The Hospitallers, the Teutonic Knights and the Order of St. Lazarus referred likewise to their symbolic foundations in Jerusalem at a time when the Holy City, which had been recovered by the crusaders, was held in higher esteem than ever. 3  United symbolically to the city by their srcins, both the Temple and the Hospital also established themselves in urban centres from the beginning of their expansion in the West, as the following examples show. The papal letter  Pie  postulatio voluntatis  of 1113 conrmed the very rst houses of the Hospitallers in the West and made reference to Saint-Gilles, Asti, Pisa, Bari, Otranto, Taranto, and Messina. 4  Even though this enumeration corresponded more to a programme for future development than to reality, all of these places were situated in urban centres, each representing a port or a stopover on the way to the Holy Land. As for the Templars, they made rapid progress in the north of France, beginning with their “birthplace” of Champagne and Flanders. 5  Although historians usually consider the establishment of the Templars in this region as essentially rural, the brethren soon reached the towns. From about 1130, they settled in Ypres, Châlons, Provins and Laon, and before the middle of the century they were located in Douai, Arras, Paris and Beauvais. 6  Although the archives rarely provide precise dates for the foundation of the urban commanderies, their development in towns was precocious as well as systematic. However, historians have not always realized the extent of this phenomenon. 7   2   Bernard Hamilton, “A Medieval Urban Church: The Case of the Crusader States,” in The Church in Town and Countryside , ed. Derek Baker, Studies in Church History 16 (Oxford, 1979), 157–70. 3    Nikolas Jaspert, “Military Orders and Urban History: An Introductory Survey,” in  Les ordres religieux-militaires dans la ville médiévale (1100–1350) .  Actes du colloque de Clermont-Ferrand, 26–28 mai 2010 , ed. Damien Carraz (Clermont-Ferrand, 2013, in press), 15–36. 4   Anthony Luttrell, “The Earliest Hospitallers,” in  Montjoie , 37–54. 5   Victor Carrière, “Les débuts de l’Ordre du Temple en France,”  Le Moyen Age  18 (1914): 308–35. 6   Valérie Bessey, “L’implantation du Temple et de l’Hôpital dans les villes du nord du royaume de France (1100–1350),” in  Les ordres religieux-militaires dans la ville médiévale , 97–112. 7   For a survey of the historiography, see Alain Demurger, “Histoire de l’historiographie des ordres religieux-militaires de 1500 à nos jours,” in  Prier et combattre. Dictionnaire européen des ordres militaires au Moyen Âge , ed. Philippe Josserand and Nicole Bériou (Paris, 2009), 32–46. On the specic  problems related to the urban context see Damien Carraz,  L’Ordre du Temple dans la basse vallée du  Rhône (1124–1312) . Ordres militaires, croisades et sociétés méridionales  (Lyon, 2005), 255–59.   TEMPLARS AND HOSPITALLERS IN THE CITIES 105 In France, a longstanding tradition in rural historiography has emphasized the settlement of the commanderies in the countryside. 8  This misunderstanding on the  part of some scholars derives from the assumption that these orders were essentially involved in the agrarian economy and seigniorial society. In the Iberian Peninsula, historians’ interest seems to be primarily limited to the relations between the orders and the local governments ( concejos ). 9  In Italy, historians’ long interest in urban affairs resulted in the development of the concept of “ inurbamento ,” in other words, the city’s power to attract population, and as a result, the urban inuence on the religious orders. However, in Italy, the military orders have usually been studied within a monographic framework, and the presence of the commanderies in the urban landscape has not led to any broader reection on this phenomenon by scholars. German historians have given more thorough attention to the link between the towns and the military orders. Yet, this scholarly tradition has adopted a more sociological approach centred on the last centuries of the Middle Ages. 10  It also focuses on the role played by the Teutonic Order in the urbanization of the German and Slavic frontiers. 11  Why has this urban aspect often been neglected in the history of the military orders? One explanation lies in the fact that the brethren themselves gave no real justication for their presence in this milieu. Reformed monasticism preached a clear separation between the monastic world and the secular world, while the mendicant orders felt the need to justify their “departure” toward the cities with all the means at their disposal. There was no need for the “warrior brothers” to do the same. Although distrustful of the secular world, the military orders’ rules provide no particular explanation for their presence in urban society.One additional reason for this historical imbalance is the lack of sources. Few  buildings testifying to the presence of the military orders have survived in towns. The fall of the Templars and the crisis of the late Middle Ages rapidly led to the decline of numerous buildings. From the end of the Middle Ages down to the industrial era, urban rebuilding projects condemned to disappearance most of the commanderies that had been built in the suburbs. Moreover, in areas such as Italy, Castile or the 8   This kind of emphasis would be more difcult to sustain nowadays: “L’implantation des maisons templières en Saintonge et en Aunis apparaît donc comme essentiellement rurale. Ce phénomène … peut être constaté en Poitou, en Limousin, en Berry, en Anjou, en Bretagne, en Normandie, en Ile-de-France, en Picardie, en Champagne, et il est à peu près certain qu’une étude étendue à tout le territoire de la France actuelle montrerait qu’il est général” (Anne-Marie Legras,  Les commanderies des Templiers et des Hospitaliers de Saint-Jean-de-Jérusalem en Saintonge et en Aunis  (Paris, 1983), 17). 9   See for example, Enrique Rodríguez-Picavea,  Los Monjes Guerreros en los reinos hispánicos. Las órdenes militares en la Península Ibérica durante la Edad Media  (Madrid, 2008), 450–53. 10   See, for instance, Karl Borchardt, “Urban Commanderies in Germany,” in  La Commanderie, institution des ordres militaires dans l’Occident médiéval. Actes du premier colloque international du Conservatoire Templier et Hospitalier, Sainte-Eulalie de Cernon, 13–15 octobre 2000 , ed. Anthony Luttrell and Léon Pressouyre (Paris, 2002), 297–305. 11   For the latest survey on German and Polish studies, see Sylvain Gouguenheim, “L’ordre Teutonique et les villes de Prusse (1230–milieu du XVe siècle),” in  Les ordres religieux-militaires dans la ville médiévale , 127–38.  106 DAMIEN CARRAZ British Isles, the scarcity and dispersion of the written sources have complicated the studies of urban settlement by the orders. 12  In other regions, such as southern France or Catalonia, the commanderies left large cartularies and collections of charters enabling more precise social and religious analyses. Consequently, a number of recent studies have now taken into account the importance of the military orders’ urban presence: for example, Kristjan Toomaspoeg’s monograph on the Teutonic Knights in Sicily, Elena Bellomo’s thesis on the Templars in northern Italy, or the works I have published on the military orders in Provence. 13  A conference held at Clermont Ferrand, France, in May 2010, entitled “The Religious-Military Orders in the Medieval Town,” enabled scholars to assess existing knowledge for multiple countries and to present a number of case studies. The present article reects the  bulk of this research, which is focused on the Occitanian and Catalan areas, the Latin East and Italy. It is important to recall the context in which the commanderies’ urban establish-ment occurred. The military orders appeared right in the middle of the “Mutation of the Year 1100” – to quote the French historian, Dominique Barthélemy. 14  This change was characterized by the rise of new urban classes, the transformation from a gift economy to a prot economy, a change in the urban landscape, and a “religious polycentrism” offering the faithful a choice of churches other than their  parish or the local monastery. 15  “Military monasticism” contributed to all these developments that made the towns the principal driving force behind economic growth, the transformations of religious life, and social changes. Nevertheless, the attraction of the military orders to the cities did not represent a radical change. Towns had welcomed monastic communities since the early Middle Ages, and the reform of the canons came partly from the urban milieu. In addition, it is well known that the twelfth century was marked by the arrival of new orders, such as the Cistercians or the Camaldules, preaching a radical break with the world. Well before the friars, the urban world offered a favourable environment for various religious experiments. Consequently, the role of the military orders in the city should also be part of scholarly investigations into the complexity of these social and religious phenomena. This complexity is clearly expressed in the contradiction  between the contempt of the world ( contemptus mundi ) and the attraction to the  benets of an urban setting. In my opinion, however, this urban attraction was even 12   For the Italian example, see Elena Bellomo, “Metodi d’indagine sulla milizia templare in Italia nord-occidentale (1142–1308),”  Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia  1 (2010): 12–15. 13   Kristjan Toomaspoeg,  Les Teutoniques en Sicile (1197–1492)  (Rome, 2003); Elena Bellomo, The Templar Order in North-West Italy, 1142–c.1330  (Leiden and Boston, 2008); Carraz,  L’Ordre du Temple . 14   Dominique Barthélemy, “La mutation de l’an 1100,”  Journal des Savants  (2005): 3–28. For a survey on the paradigm of the “feudal mutation,” see Dominique Barthélemy, “Debate: The Feudal Revolution,”  Past and Present   152 (1996): 196–205. 15   For the general context, see in particular    Lester K. Little,  Religious Poverty and the Prot  Economy in Medieval Europe  (London, 1978); and Jacques Chiffoleau, “Note sur le polycentrisme religieux urbain à la n du Moyen Âge,” in  Religion et société urbaine au Moyen Âge. Études offertes à  Jean-Louis Biget  , ed. Patrick Boucheron and Jacques Chiffoleau (Paris, 2000), 227–52.   TEMPLARS AND HOSPITALLERS IN THE CITIES 107 more important for the military orders than for the other new orders of the twelfth century. The Cistercians established town houses, guesthouses and colleges, but these places were more like enclaves within the city, a sort of monastic “  fondachi .” 16  Moreover, the White Monks always kept a certain distance from urban society. While traditional Benedictines placed their  familiares  and their servants outside the monastic enclosure, the Carthusians and the Camaldules tried to preserve themselves, symbolically, from the uproar and dangers of the city. 17  None of this kind of behaviour can be found within the military orders, whose commanderies lay within secular neighbourhoods. From their very srcins the military orders were integrated into urban societies in a systematic way.This survey of recent scholarship on the subject is not exhaustive, because the quantity of available material is already colossal, despite the fact that this is a fairly new eld of research. The precise circumstances of the orders’ arrival in the city or the political issues arising from their presence, in particular their relationships with princely powers, are beyond the scope of this article. This study is also limited to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries – in other words, to the period of greatest urban expansion. Both centuries also correspond to a phase during which the social and religious impact of the orders was at its height. I will concentrate on two main themes. The rst considers the spatial impact of the Temple and the Hospital in the city and the ways in which their presence affected the urban landscape. The second examines the spiritual and social inuence of the orders, showing in fact that their  propositum vitae  was fully consistent with the townspeople’s mentalities. Commanderies in the Urban Landscape  Localization The location of the military orders’ houses depended largely on the circumstances of their arrival in the city. They were often set up by princely or seigniorial powers, or sometimes invited by bishops. These benefactors offered them a piece of land, a chapel or occasionally a hospital, which was how they became established. In the rst decades of their existence, the orders also tried to settle in places of their own choosing by sending missions who were instructed to collect donations and to  promote their institutions to local government. It was in this way that the Templars spread into numerous episcopal cities of Provence between 1130 and 1170. Starting in Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux and Orange, they reached Arles and Saint-Gilles, and 16   Constance H. Berman, “Monastic Hospices in Southern France and Colleges in Montpellier, Toulouse, Paris, and Oxford: The Cistercian Urban Presence,”  Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique  102 (2007): 764. 17   Cécile Caby,  De l’érémitisme rural au monachisme urbain. Les Camaldules en Italie à la n du  Moyen Âge  (Rome, 1999).
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