Rodale Institute - 30 anos Agricultura Biológica

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  Uma quinta enorme experimental nos EUA tem razões mais que suficientes para celebrar seus 30 anos de existência: comprova que métodos orgânicos de agricultura são igualmente produtivos, necessita menos de 45% de energia que a convencional, protege os solos, é mais rentável e reduz em 40% a emissão de gases efeito de estufa. Relatório completo
  FARMINGSYSTEMS THE Celebrating   years  Our MissiOn Thh i hi  i thhth  -i    th t. InTroducTIonHIsTorysoIl HealTH yIeldseconomIcsenergyHuman HealTHwHaT’s THe bIg pIcTure?references 030507091315171921 FARMINGSYSTEMS THE Celebrating   years cOre values w  h th t i  ii.o  i  titi  iiti.o h i  tt  h.w    i  i hi.  The hallmark o a truly sustainable system is its ability to regenerate itsel. When it comesto arming, the key to sustainable agriculture is healthy soil, since this is the oundationor present and uture growth.Organic arming is ar superior to conventional systems when it comes to building,maintaining and replenishing the health o the soil. For o    alone, organicagriculture is more sustainable than conventional. When one also considers  ,oom ,  ,  m  , it’s clear that organic armingis sustainable, while current conventional practices are not. As we ace uncertain and extreme weather patterns, growing scarcity and expense o oil,lack o water, and a growing population, we will require arming systems that can adapt,withstand or even mitigate these problems while producing healthy, nourishing ood. Ater 30 years o side-by-side research in our Farming Systems Trial (FST) ® , RodaleInstitute has demonstrated that organic arming is better equipped to eed us now andwell into the ever changing uture. sustainable  As it pertains to arming, this term doesnot have a standard deinition. For thepurposes o this paper, we will deinesustainable as a system that can maintainor enhance soil ertility indeinitely. Organic Most simply, this reers to a system o armingthat does not use synthetic chemicals and,instead, mimics natural systems. This mayencompass dierent arm sizes, practices andphilosophies that, at their core, reject the use otoxic, synthetic chemicals. 04 intrOductiOn n   oi i th ti i. n   oi t ti i   ht. n   oi i t i th th t i i tt,ki it   ti t. n   oi i  45%    i  iit. n   cti t  40%  h . n   oi i t   it th ti. Fst Facts cOMparisOn OF Fst Organic andcOnventiOnal systeMs 010002000300040005000 ORGANICCONVENTIONAL  YIELDS(lbs/a/yr)PROFIT($/a/yr)ENERGYINPUT(MJ/a/yr)GREENHOUSEGASES(lbs CO 2  /a/yr)       4  ,      0      7      9       $      5      5      8      3  ,      2      6      4      9      0      6      4  ,      0      2      2       $      1      9      0      4  ,      5      6      8      1  ,      4      0      0 03  A view of FST  =pounds,  =acre,   =year, mJ =megajoule  the diFFerent systeMs The crop rotations in the organic systems are more diverse than inthe conventional systems, including up to seven crops in eight years(compared to two conventional crops in two years). While this means thatconventional systems produce more corn or soybeans because they occurmore oten in the rotation, organic systems produce a more diverse arrayo ood and nutrients and are better positioned to produce yields, even inadverse conditions. organIc manure This system represents an organic dairy or bee operation. It eatures along rotation including both annual eed grain crops and perennial oragecrops. The system’s ertility is provided by leguminous cover crops andperiodic applications o manure or composted manure. This diverserotation is also the primary line o deense against pests. organIc legume This system represents an organic cash grain system. It eatures amid-length rotation consisting o annual grain crops and cover crops.The system’s sole source o ertility is leguminous cover crops and therotation provides the primary line o deense against pests. convenTIonal synTHeTIc This system represents the majority o grain arms in the U.S. It relieson synthetic nitrogen or ertility, and weeds are controlled by syntheticherbicides selected by and applied at rates recommended by Penn StateUniversity Cooperative Extension. In 2008, genetically modiied (GM) cornand soybeans were added to this system. no-TIll sysTems Each o the major systems was divided into two in 2008 to comparetraditional tillage with no-till practices. The organic systems utilize ourinnovative no-till roller/crimper, and the no-till conventional system relieson current, widespread practices o herbicide applications and no-till-speciic equipment. crOp rOtatiOns 06 histOry  The Farming Systems Trial (FST) ® at Rodale Institute is America’s longest running, side-by-side comparison o organic and chemical agriculture. Started in 1981 to study whathappens during the transition rom chemical to organic agriculture, the FST surpriseda ood community that still scoed at organic practices. Ater an initial decline in yieldsduring the irst ew years o transition, the organic system soon rebounded to match orsurpass the conventional system. Over time, FST became a comparison between the longterm potential o the two systems.We selected corn and soybean production as our research ocus because large tracts oland, particularly in our region and the Midwest, are devoted to the production o thesecrops. Corn and soybean acreage comprised 49% o the total cropland in the U.S. in2007. Other grains made up 21%, orages 22% and vegetables just 1.5%.Throughout its long history, the FST has contained three core arming systems, eacho which eatures diverse management practices: a manure-based organic system, alegume-based organic system, and a synthetic input-based conventional system. In thepast three years o the trial, genetically modiied (GM) crops and no-till treatments wereincorporated to better represent arming in America today. Results and comparisons arenoted accordingly to relect this shit.  Aerial photograph of FST field taken in 1981 prior to initial planting. 05
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