País de Marca y Su Efecto Sobre El Consumidor En | Brand | Bias

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  ISSN: 1131 - 6837 Cuadernos de Gestión Vol. 17 - Nº 1 (2017), pp. 83-104 83 Country Branding and its effect on the consumer in the global marketGestión de la Marca País y sus efectos en el consumidor en un mercado globalizado K ERRY  K ILDUFF  1 J ULIA  M. N ÚÑEZ  T ABALES 1 Universidad de Córdoba (España)  Recibido el 6 de mayo de 2015, aceptado el 2 de febrero de 2016 Publicado online el 4 de mayo de 2016  Nº de clasicación JEL: F10, M31 DOI: 10.5295/cdg.150543kk Abstract: Country Branding -a relatively new type of marketing and public diplomacy- is a developing eld and a tool that governments use to promote their goods and services and to enhance awareness about their country, promote tourism, increase trade and attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and talent. A Country Brand is more than a sum of its products. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate the key components of international and intercultural transactions and to focus on how these inuence the Nation Brand. In the global marketplace, whe -re products and services from different countries are competing for market share, it is important to understand how a product’s place of srcin contributes its overall image, and how consumers relate to the foreign product.  By identifying the consumer it is possible to gain an understanding of the cultural inuences that determine the consumers’ relation to the product, service, or Nation Brand.  Likewise, this paper relates previous studies in the elds of country-of-srcin (COO) and consumer studies as inuential factors the evolution of Country Branding. By gaining a clear idea of the relationship between these three elds –COO, consumer and Country Branding-, scholars and professionals can assess the inuence that a  product’s country-of-srcin has on its audience, and create country brands that effectively dene the product and reach target consumers. Keywords: Country Branding, country-of-srcin (COO), consumer, foreign goods. Resumen:  La Gestión de la Marca País -rama de estudio relativamente nueva y en desarrollo- es un instrumento que los gobiernos utilizan para promover sus bienes y servicios, para mejorar el conocimiento de cada país, promo-ver el turismo, incrementar el comercio y atraer inversión extranjera directa (IED) y talento. Una Marca País es más que la suma de sus productos. El objetivo de esta revisión literaria es investigar los componentes claves en las transacciones internacionales e interculturales e identicar su inuencia en la formación de la Marca País. 1  Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Puerta Nueva s/n, 14071 Córdoba (España). kkilduff@ucla.edu; es2nutaj@uco.es  Country Branding and its effect on the consumer in the global market Cuadernos de Gestión Vol. 17 - Nº 1 (2017), pp. 83-104   ISSN: 1131 - 6837 84  En el mercado global, donde los productos y servicios de países diferentes compiten por la cuota de mercado, es importante entender el modo en que el lugar de srcen de un producto contribuye a su imagen de conjunto, así como la forma en que los consumidores se relacionan con el producto extranjero. Identicando al consumidor se puede entender las inuencias culturales que determinan la relación de los consumidores con el producto, el servicio o la Marca País.  Así pues, en este trabajo se relacionan estudios anteriores en los campos de país de srcen (COO) y los relativos al consumidor como factores decisivos en la evolución del concepto Marca País. Al obtener una idea clara de la relación entre estos tres campos –COO, consumidor y Marca País–, los académicos y profesionales  podremos: valorar la inuencia que el país de srcen de un producto tiene sobre su público, crear una Marca País que dena sus productos y llegar exitosamente al consumidor objetivo. Palabras clave: Gestión de Marca País, país de srcen, consumidor, bienes extranjeros.  Kerry Kilduff     /  Julia M. Núñez Tabales ISSN: 1131 - 6837 Cuadernos de Gestión Vol. 17 - Nº 1 (2017), pp. 83-104 85 1. INTRODUCTION Place branding is a tool that has been increasingly used by governments in the past two decades to enhance awareness about their country, promote tourism, increase trade and attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and talent. The concept of place branding arose in the early 1990s (Kotler et al. 1993; Anholt 1998) and has since then been studied, discussed and developed by scholars, private companies, and governments. Place branding can be employed as locally as a neighborhood or a city, or as broadly as a region or a country. In this paper, the focus is on place branding at the national level. Though it is a complex and multi-faceted assignment, managing a nation’s image is crucial for a country to compete commercially, politically, socially and culturally in the global marketplace. It is a tool that helps to dene an image in the minds of consumers, enhances the perception of those who have little or no personal connection with a country, as well as redenes stereotypes that may be broad, misleading or outdated. If the national image of country is clearly and concisely presented to an audience, it invites the consumer to create relationship with the location.In promoting trade and investments, it is important that countries have clear, succinct images, since a strong and positive brand image constantly accompanies citizens and com - panies: “their nation brand goes before them like a calling card, opening doors, creating trust, generating respect and raising the expectation of quality, competence and integrity” (Anholt 2008, p. 207). If a nation does not brand itself internationally, it gives the oppor - tunity for others to dene them (Van Ham 2001), which makes re-branding the country’s reality even more difcult. This idea is demonstrated in the 2006 mockumentary “Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benet Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan” to see how one movie affected Kazakhstan’s reputation abroad (Fullerton et al. 2008; Van Ham 2008; Stock 2009b).The purpose of this literature review is to investigate the key components of internatio - nal and intercultural transactions and to focus on how these inuence the nation brand. In the global marketplace, where products and services from different countries are competing for market share, it is important to understand how a product’s place of srcin contributes its overall image, and how consumers relate to the foreign product. An examination of how products and services relate to their country-of-srcin (COO) will be carried out. How does country-of-srcin affect the image of the product offered? How is national identity trans - mitted through a product or service? By gaining an understanding of the product, the shift is then shifted our focus to the consumer: how does the “made-in” label on a product, an informational cue, affect consumers’ responses to products or services? Is this information benecial to the product, and to creating an idea of the country of srcin? A nation brand is more than a sum of its products. By gaining an understanding of the effects of COO, it’s possible to learn how the provenance of a product or service inuences consumers’ opi - nions and thus contributes to the foreign perception of a nation brand.This review is not intended to be an all-inclusive review of the literature regarding country-of-srcin, consumer behavior and nation branding. This review seeks to cover the most relevant investigations, issues and themes and the main topics in order to gain insight how nation brands are formed, how they can be managed, and how countries can use these ideas to develop their place brand.  Country Branding and its effect on the consumer in the global market Cuadernos de Gestión Vol. 17 - Nº 1 (2017), pp. 83-104   ISSN: 1131 - 6837 86 2. HOW THE COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN (COO) AFFECTS THE PRODUCT The concept of country-of-srcin is attributed to Robert Schooler (1965), who conduc - ted a study among Guatemalan students. When presented with a cloth product whose label identied the country that the product came from (either Mexico, Costa Rica, El Salvador or Guatemala), Schooler found that the Guatemalan respondents preferred products from Mexico and Guatemala to those from Costa Rica and El Salvador, thus showing that a hie - rarchy of product preferences exists based on country of srcin. In reality, all four products had been produced in Guatemala. The study, though groundbreaking, has been deemed simplistic, since the study does not examine to what extent the country-of-srcin effect inuences consumers’ decisions.In a subsequent study, Schooler (1971) studied foreign products in the United States. He found there were signicant biases towards and against goods from foreign countries, and that the biases varied when stratied. For example, he found that consumers, depending on their level of education, were more or less accepting of foreign products. The higher the level of education, the more positively consumers valued the products. This conclusion has been conrmed by various other studies (Anderson and Cunningham   1972; Dornoff et al. 1974; Heslop and Wall 1985). Gender also played a role in the country-of-srcin effect: women were more likely to positively evaluate foreign products than men. Another nding in Schooler’s study was that age also made a difference, as younger consumers were more open to foreign products than older consumers. Country-of-srcin perceptions have been shown to change over time. A study evalua - ting the attitudes of Japanese businessmen regarding products from ve countries in 1967 and subsequently in 1975 concluded that over the eight-year period, the businessmen’s opinions of the products were modied (Nagashima 1977). This study gives basis for the eld of country image management, which aims to create positive attitudes or re-shape prior country images that, in turn, stimulate tourism, exports, and FDI. This study was the rst to use a seven-point semantic differential scale, hailing results that more concisely represent the participant’s attitudes.By compiling a literature review of country-of-srcin studies to date, it facilitates out - lining the ndings and shortfalls of these works to encourage further study of the eld (Bilkey and Nes   1982). In summarizing remaining issues such as what inuences country-of-srcin biases and whether these biases are supercial or rooted in a society, Bilkey and Nes encourage product-country image to become a growth industry and not a stagnant eld of research. Through reviewing previous studies, the authors conrmed that COO inuences consumer perceptions of the products, but could not determine how much of an inuence this cue accounts for. This study also raises the question of whether the COO bias stems from the foreign country’s political, social, and economic development, or if the COO bias resides within the consumer and is inuenced by attitudes towards nationalism, ethnocentrism, and previous experiences with imports. The latter part of this issue will be explored in the second part of this literature review.The inuence of the COO effect on consumers was challenged by the results of several studies. In one study, subjects were asked to assess Japanese, American, and German made cars based on thirteen features: price, handling, horsepower, acceleration, gas mileage, safety, driving comfort, passenger comfort, reliability, durability, workmanship, styling
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