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  Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (H. U. Journal of Education) 38: 150-164 [2010] INDIVIDUAL INNOVATIVENESS SCALE (IS): THE STUDY OF ADAPTATION TO TURKISH, VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Kerem KILIÇER**, Hatice Ferhan ODABAŞI *** ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to adapt the Innovativeness Scale which developed H. Thomas Hurt and others in 1977 to Turkish. In the light of results the adapted scale, that validity and reliability studies were carried out on 343 undergraduate students, w
    Hacettepe Üniversitesi E ğ itim Fakültesi Dergisi(H. U. Journal of Education) 38: 150-164 [2010]   INDIVIDUAL INNOVATIVENESS SCALE (IS): THE STUDY OF ADAPTATION TOTURKISH, VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Kerem KILIÇER  ** , Hatice Ferhan ODABA Ş I ***   ABSTRACT : The aim of this study is to adapt the Innovativeness Scale which developed H. Thomas Hurt and othersin 1977 to Turkish. In the light of results the adapted scale, that validity and reliability studies were carried out on 343undergraduate students, was made up 20 items. That scale was yielded four factors and its structures of the factors were valid.It is found that adapted scales’ internal reliability co-efficient was 0.82 and test-retest reliability co-efficient was 0.87. Hencethis adapted scale is suitable for Turkish academic studies related to innovativeness and its derivatives. Keywords: Individual innovativeness, scale adaptation EXTENDED ABSTRACT Global competition requires value-targeted innovation. Therefore, societies need individualswho are inclined to changes, open to new experiences, opinion leaders, and problem solvers. That is,societies are in need of innovative individuals. It is necessary to determine the categories of innovativeness individuals belong to and to identify their level of innovativeness in order to evaluatetheir characteristics. One of the scales used for this purpose is the one called “Innovativeness Scale(IS)”, developed in 1977 by H. Thomas Hurt, Katherine Joseph and Chester. D. Cook.The Innovativeness Scale (IS) is used to determine the categories of innovativeness individuals belong to and to identify their level of innovativeness in general. The scale measures innovativeness ingeneral and regards innovativeness in individual aspects as “willingness to experience new things”  (Hurt, Joseph & Cook, 1977). In addition, risk-taking and openness to experiences are considered to be related to the innovativeness. With the help of the scores found out through the scale, individualsare found to fall into five different categories in terms of innovativeness such as “Innovators”, “Early Adopters”, “Early Majority”, “Late Majority” and “Laggards”. Although the scale was developedfor the field of communication, it was used in the fields of education, distant-education and marketingand was found to reliably measure innovativeness in general (Pallister & Foxall, 1998; Simonson,2000; Brahier, 2006). The scale is a measurement tool that determines the categories of innovativenessindividuals belong to and identifies their level of innovativeness on the basis of self-reports. Initially,the items of the scale were scored to define the creative and inventive individual through 53 items of seven-point likert-type items as “Strongly Agree” and “Strongly Disagree”. Later, the items of thescale were reduced to 20 and reorganized to the form of five-point likert-type as a result of improvement studies. The internal reliability coefficient of the whole scale was found 0.89 and thesplit-half reliability coefficient was found 0.92 (Hurt, Joseph & Cook, 1977).The adaptation study of the scale into Turkish was carried out with 343 students attending 12teacher-training programs in the Faculty of Education at Anadolu University. Of all the undergraduatestudents participating in the study, 66.8% of them (229 students) were female and 32.9% were (113students) male. Among the students, 7.0% were (24) freshman, 18.7% were (64) sophomore, 16.6%were (57) junior, and 57.7% were (198) senior.In the adaptation process of the Innovativeness Scale (IS) into Turkish, first, the items of srcinal scale was translated into Turkish independently by two translators; one of them was a facultymember in the Department of English Language Teaching and the other was an instructor teaching inthe School of Foreign Languages. Second, in order to test the equivalence of the words and thestatements in the pilot form with the srcinal scale, judgmental and statistical methods were applied. **   Ara ş . Gör., Anadolu Üniversitesi, E ğ itim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, e-posta:    ***   Prof. Dr., Anadolu Üniversitesi, E ğ itim Fakültesi, Bilgisayar ve Ö ğ retim Teknolojileri E ğ itimi Bölümü,      K. KILIÇER-H.F. ODABA Ş   I  /  H. Ü. E   ğ  itim Fakültesi Dergisi (  H  . U  . Journal of Education ), 38 (2010), 150-164 151For the judgmental evaluation, first, the translations were examined by a group of experts in terms of concepts and statements and were compared with those in the source language. Next, in order toevaluate the comprehensibility of the scale and its appropriateness to students, the scale was given tofive students, and they were asked what each item means. In this way, the data related to the item-equivalence were obtained. In addition, in order to determine the statistical equivalence of the items of the srcinal scale with the items of the Turkish-version scale, the two forms were applied to 39students who knew both the source and the target languages. Consequently, a high level of positiveand significant correlation was found between the English and Turkish forms.In the scope of the validity study of the Turkish-version form obtained, the construct-validitywas examined through exploratory factor analysis. When the results of the exploratory factor analysiswere examined, it was found out that the Turkish-version form included a four-factor structure. In thecontext of literature and properties of the items, these factors has been entitled, respectively, as “Resistance to change”, “Risk-taking”, “Openness to experience” and “Opinion-leading”. Besides,these four factors’ total variance explained is 52.521% and that the structures of the factors were valid.The common variances of the four factors defined regarding the items ranged between 0.415 and0.628. It was found that the item-total correlations range between 0.270 and 0.510, and the factor-loads range between 0.360 and 0.787.As a result of the item-analysis based on the upper 27% group means and on the lower 27%group means to determine how efficient the Turkish-version form was in distinguishing betweenindividuals who have high and those who have low levels in terms of the innovativeness beingmeasured, it was revealed that the Turkish-version form was efficient in distinguishing individuals interms of the individual aspects being measured; that each of the items in the scale contributed to themeasurement of the aspect to be measured; and that the scale helped distinguish between individualswho had positive and those who had negative attitudes in terms of the aspects to be measured.The internal reliability coefficient of the Turkish-version of whole scale was calculated as α =0.82. Besides, the internal reliability of four factors were calculated, respectively, as α =0.81, α =0.73, α =0.77 and α =0.62. It could be stated that the reliability coefficient found is quite close to thereliability range reported in related literature and is higher than the ideal reliability value. In addition,the test-retest reliability coefficient calculated to statistically test the consistency of the Turkish-version form in terms of the aspect being measured depending on the time was found 0.87. Therefore,the Turkish-version form was considered to consistently measure the aspects that do not rapidlychange in time.In conclusion, the Turkish Innovativeness Scale (TIS) in the light of the results of the analysescarried out can be said to be a valid and reliable scale that could be used in Turkish culture todetermine the categories of innovativeness individuals belong to as well as their level of innovativeness in general. It is also believed that the Turkish Innovativeness Scale (TIS) can be usedin Turkish academic studies to be conducted on innovativeness and on subjects related toinnovativeness and will be beneficial to those interested in such subjects. REFERENCES Ba ş , T. (2006).  Anket. Ankara: Seçkin Yay ı nc ı l ı k.Baykul, Y. (2000).  E   ğ  itimde ve psikolojide ölçme: Klasik test teorisi ve uygulamas ı . Ankara: ÖSYM Yay ı nlar  ı .Braak, J. (2001). Individual characteristics influencing teachers’ class use of computers. Journal of Educational Computing Research , 25 (2), 141-157.Brahier, B. R. (2006). Examining a model of teachers' technology adoption decision making: An application of diffusionof innovations theory. University of Minnesota, Faculty of the Graduate School  , Yay ı nlanmam ı ş Doktora Tezi.Büyüköztürk, Ş . (2002). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitab ı . Ankara: PegemA Yay ı nc ı l ı k.Creswell, J. W. (2005).  Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitativeresearch. Pearson Prentice Hall.Elçi, Ş . (2006).  İ  novasyon: Kalk  ı nman ı n ve rekabetin anahtar  ı . Geni  ş letilmi  ş yeni bask  ı . Nova Yay ı nlar  ı .Erku ş , A. (2003).  Psikometri üzerine yaz ı lar. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derne ğ i Yay ı nlar  ı . No:24.Erku ş , A. (2005).  Bilimsel ara  ş t  ı rma sarmal  ı . Ankara: Seçkin Yay ı nlar  ı .   K. KILIÇER-H.F. ODABA Ş   I  /  H. Ü. E   ğ  itim Fakültesi Dergisi (  H  . U  . Journal of Education ), 38 (2010), 150-164 152 Field, A. (2005).  Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: SAGE Yay ı nlar  ı .Goldsmith, R.E. & Foxall, G.R. (2003). The measurement of innovativeness. In L.V. Shavinina (Eds.), The international handbook of innovation (pp. 321-329). Elsevier Science Ltd.Hambleton, R.K. & Bollwark, J. (1991). Adapting tests for use in different cultures: Technical issues and methods.  Bulletin of the International Testing Commission , 18 , 3-32.Hambleton, R.K. & Kanjee, A. (1993). Enhancing the validity of cross-cultural studies: Improvements in instrumenttranslation methods.  Annual Meetings of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, April 12-16.Hart, H. (1945). Logistic social trends. The American Journal of Sociology. 50(5), 337-352.Hurt, H. T., Joseph, K., & Cook, C. D. (1977). Scales for the measurement of innovativeness.  Human Communication Research    , 4 , 58-65.OECD. (2006). Oslo k  ı lavuzu yenilik verilerinin toplanmas ı ve yorumlanmas ı için ilkeler  3. Bask  ı . TUB İ TAK.Öner, N. (1987). Kültürleraras ı ölçek uyarlamas ı nda bir yöntembilim modeli.  Psikoloji Dergisi    , 6  (21), 80-83.Özgüven, İ .E. (1999).  Psikolojik testler. Ankara: PDREM Yay ı nlar  ı .Pallister, J., & Foxall, G. R. (1998). Psychometric properties of the Hurt-Joseph-Cook scales for the measurement of innovativeness. Technovation    , 18 (11), 663-675.Rogers, M. E. (1995).  Diffusion of innovations (Fifth Edition). New York: Free Press.Sava ş ı r, I. (1994). Ölçek uyarlamas ı ndaki baz ı sorunlar ve çözüm yollar  ı . Türk Psikoloji Dergisi    , 33 (9), 27-32.Simonson, M. (2000). Personal innovativeness, perceived organizational innovativeness, and computer anxiety: Updatesscales. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education    , 1 (1), 69-76.Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics.  New York: HarperCollins CollegeTezba ş aran, A.A. (1996).  Likert tipi ölçek geli  ş tirme k  ı lavuzu. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derne ğ i.Uzkurt, C. (2008).  Pazarlamada de  ğ  er yaratma arac ı olarak yenilik yönetimi ve yenilikçi örgüt kültürü.   İ stanbul: BetaBas ı m A. Ş .Weinsten, L. (2004).  Diffusion of innovation . 16.04.2007 tarihinde adresinden al ı nd ı  
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