Experiential Marketing – A Designer of Pleasurable and Memorable Experiences

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  Experiential Marketing – A Designer of Pleasurable and Memorable Experiences
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  ournal    of    Business   Management    &   Social    Sciences   Research   (JBM&SSR)   ISSN    No:   2319 ‐ 5614   Volume   2,   No.3,   March   2013    _________________________________________________________________________________   www.borjournals.com   Blue   Ocean   Research    Journals   28    Experiential Marketing – A Designer of Pleasurable and Memorable Experiences Dr. Krishnaveni Muthiah, Associate Professor, PSGIM. India S.Suja, ResearchScholar, PSGIM, India ABSTRACT The rapid growth of globalisation, economic crisis and the change in the lifestyle of consumers poses a challenge for the marketers in the present era. Today’s consumers have an insight beyond satisfying their needs and wants. Business firms today need to create long lasting impressions on their clients which are converted into memorable experiences as a result of the pleasures derived. An experience occurs when consumers become involved to such an extent that a lasting impression is made on them (Pine II and Gilmore, 1999).Experience varies from consumer to consumer, as experiences are very personal. Marketers are staging the products in such a way that it creates a lasting personal impression on the consumers.  Experiential marketing is a tool for the present century marketing needs. An indepth understanding about what needs to be incorporated in the successful implementation of this marketing tool is done in this paper. This  present effort is to provide a conceptual understanding based on general review of past literature. Long lasting impression creates pleasurable and memorable experiences for the consumers, which are the base for experiential marketing. Experience can be designed and made to provide pleasurable and memorable instances  for consumers, in any field as this constitutes experiential marketing.  Keywords:  Experiential Marketing, Pleasurable and Memorable Experience, Customer Participation. INTRODUCTION The rapid growth of globalisation, economic crisis and the change in the lifestyle of consumers poses a challenge for the marketers in the present era. Today’s consumers have an insight beyond satisfying their needs and wants. Business firms today need to create long lasting impressions on their clients which are converted into memorable experiences as a result of the pleasures derived. An experience occurs when consumers become involved to such an extent that a lasting impression is made on them (Pine II and Gilmore, 1999).Experience varies from consumer to consumer, as experiences are very personal. Marketers are staging the products in such a way that it creates a lasting personal impression on the consumers. Experiences are staged in engaging consumers for the creation of pleasurable and memorable experiences. The input is given to the consumers through entertainment experience, education experience, communication experience, visual identity, product presence, co-branding, spatial environment, electronic media and people. The senses are used as the input media for the consumers. In the processing stage the consumer feels, thinks, acts and relates the taken datas. The outcome will be pleasurable and memorable experiences of the consumers. If the input given by the marketer gives a good impression on the consumer then the result will be a pleasurable and memorable experience, if it is in the other way then chances of negative results may also occur. Proper concentration must be given in the creation of good impression.   The creation of pleasurable and memorable experiences to the consumers will make them to think about their experiences very often, as it is a sweet spot in their life. The consumer also makes a  propoganda about the product to their friends and relatives through word of mouth. As a result of which the revenue of the company is expected to increase. The marketers are supposed to give weightage in designing the pleasurable and memorable consumer experiences as consumers are concentrating about the pleasure received while getting a product and try to avoid the pain. Thus,  pleasurable and memorable experience plays a vital role in experiential marketing in selling the experiences. Experiential Marketing  Bernd Schmitt had stated experiential marketing as “Experiential maketing is everywhere.In a variety of industries, companies have moved away from traditional “features-and-benefits” marketing towards creating experiences for their customers”.Pine and Gilmore in their welcome to the experience economy has stated that”experiences are not exclusively about entertainment; companies stage an experience whenever they engage customers in a personal, memorable way”. Ellen O’Sullivan and Kathy Spangler clearly states “Life is not measured by the  ournal    of    Business   Management    &   Social    Sciences   Research   (JBM&SSR)   ISSN    No:   2319 ‐ 5614   Volume   2,   No.3,   March   2013    _________________________________________________________________________________   www.borjournals.com   Blue   Ocean   Research    Journals   29   number of breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away”. So the moments must  be staged by the marketers in such a way that will create a lasting impression in the minds of the  people. Lasting impressions generally provides  pleasure which will be a memorable experience in the minds of the consumers. Interacting with the consumers in focusing the identification for their problem is experience. Tailor-made solutions and services have lesser scope than experiences. Consumers have their  primary focus on satisifying their needs and demands. Marketer must pay attention to the environment as services are received from the environment and it affects the quality of experience and service provided. Services are immaterial and consumers give importance to their expectations on tangible elements. In experiential marketing, the  primary perspective is broader and the integral part of value proposition is formed by the consumers and the environment within which they live. The concept development over the years The concept of happiest moments and experiences in the field of marketing were brought into focus by Maslow in 1968, he defined peak of experience as moments of the highest happiness and fulfilment” “In moments like this we feel more powerful than usual and experience unusual focus, joy, intensity, creativity, inother words being more fully human.” In 1977 Csikszentmihalyi has stated individual experience flow as “a unified flowing from one moment to the next, in which he is in a control of his actions and in which there is a little distinction  between self and environment, between stimulus and response, between past, present and future”.Holbrook and Hirschman in 1982 has defined experience as a personal occurrence, often with important emotional significance, founded on the interaction with stimuli which are the products or services consumed. Csikszentmihalyi in 1990 has described flow is a state of experience which is characterised by an experience of intense concentration and enjoyment. Arnould and Price in 1993 has said an extraordinary experience is characterised by a high level of emotional intensity, and is trigerred by an unusual event. Carbone and Haeckel (1994) had described experience implies the “take-away impression formed by people’s encounter with products, services, and business – a  perception produced when humans consolidate sensory information”. Pine and Gilmore (1999) have stated “experience are events that engage individuals in a personal way”. Schmitt (1999) gives a clear understanding of experience, as “Private events that occur in response to some stimulation (e.g. as provided by marketing efforts before and after purchase)”. Robinette et al (2002) states experience as “the collection of points at which companies and consumers exchange sensory stimuli, information and emotion”. Shaw and Ivens (2002) – “An interaction between an organisation and a customer. It is a blend of an organisation’s physical performance, the senses stimulated and emotions evoked, each intuitively measured against customer experience across all moments of contact”. Meyer and Schwager (2007)  – “ The internal and subjective response that customers have of any direct or indirect contact with a company”. Gentile et al., (2007) – The customers experiene srcinates from a set of interactions between a customer and a product, a company, or part of its organization, which  provoke a reaction. This experience is strictly individual and implies the customer’s involvement at different levels (rational, emotional, sensorial,  physical and spritual). Caru and Cova (2002 and 2003) - defined the concept of experience as ‘something extremely significant and unforgettable for the consumer immersed into the experience”. Implementing the experience marketing concept by the useage of unforgetable experience is an easy task for the marketer as the the impressed customer as well as his friends and relatives through his word of mouth will be attracted towards the product as a result of the unforgetable experience. Gortes (2004) has described experience marketing as “Aims to provide consumers with compelling and memorable experiences that emotionally connect them to a brand each time they buy a  product.” Desmet and Hekkert (2007) – define product experience as “the entire set of affects that is elicited by the interaction between a user and a  product, including the degree to which all our senses are gratified (aesthetic experience), the meanings we attach to the product (experience meaning) and the feelings and emotions that are elicited (emotional experience).” The thought process over the years   Holbrook and Hirschman (1982) in their conceptual article had spoken about fantasies, feelings and fun. Arnould and Price (1993) in River Rafting had described about Harmony with nature, communitas and personal growth and renewal. Otto and Ritchie (1996) in tourism industry has spoken about Hedonic, novelty, stimulation, safety, comfort and interactive. O’Sullivan and Spangler (1998) in his conceptual article has said about real to virtual, novelty or communality, degree of mass- production or customization, and level of interaction with ither people. Pine and Gilmore (1999) in their conceptual article has spoken about  ournal    of    Business   Management    &   Social    Sciences   Research   (JBM&SSR)   ISSN    No:   2319 ‐ 5614   Volume   2,   No.3,   March   2013    _________________________________________________________________________________   www.borjournals.com   Blue   Ocean   Research    Journals   30    entertainment, education, estheticism and escape. Poulsson and Kale (2004) in a range of industries; gaming, rock climbing gyms, theme parks, museums, hot air ballon rides,etc has said about  personal relevance, novelty, surprise, learning and engagement. O’Loughlin et al (2004) in Irish financial services had spoken about Brand experience, transcational experience and relationship experience. Mascarenhas et al (2006) in their conceptual paper had spoken about physical and emotional elements. Gentile et al (2007) in a study on some widely-known brands have spoken about a sensorial,an emotional, a cognitive, a  pragmatic, a lifestyle, and a relational component. Creating Pleasurable and Memorable Experience A product or service creating a memorable long lasting pleasurable experience in the minds of the consumers are the leaders in the market. According to Bain’s James Allen, in his writings on the “The three Ds of Customer Experience” he had given a clear statement as    Design - the right experiences for the right consumer.    Deliver - Commit (organizationally and cross functionally) to deliver them.    Develop - capabilities to please customers again and again. Designing Pleasurable and Memorable Experiences Ralph Ardill in his Experience Design has stated that “Experience design is driven by consideration of the ‘moments’ of engagement between people and brands, and the memories these moments create”. Marketers are supposed to design the experience which is a most difficult task, the experiences are to be sold to individuals. The same experience will vary from individual to individual as experiences are unique. A well designed experience creates a good impression in the minds of the consumer, which will be converted into memorable experiences in the minds of the consumers as a result of the pleasurable experience derived out of them. A poorly designed memory can yield nothing to consumers, which can even hardly get the attention of the consumers. A restaurant invites its consumer with a man opening the door for the consumer with a warm welcoming smile, followed by the waiter providing the water for the consumers before taking the orders, then serving the food as per the order and the need of the consumer. The mood of each consumer in the restaurant will be varying some group of people may arrive for businees discussion, some may come with family as an outing, whereas someother group may come with their friends,etc. so the mood of each group and each individual varies, but the place is the same. If the experience  provided by the restaurant satisfies the emotions of all the consumers then the same consumer turns  back to the restaurant very often with different group of people irrespective of the price criteria. So the consumer is ready to pay for the pleasurable and memorable experience gained by him in the restaurant at all situations, as the restaurant satisfies his expectations Design is thought of as something to do with aesthetics (Hollins, 2002). Design stands in its own right as a separate but closely related function to the marketing and creation of pleasurable and memorable customer experiences. O’Sullivan (1998) says that design involves the way concepts are developed, the way products are made, the way they look, the way they behave, and the way they are used. Margolin (1989) observed, “Design is all around: it infuses every object in the material world and gives form to immaterial processes such as factory production and services. Design determines the shape and height of a shoe heel, the access to computer functions through software, the mood of an office interior, special effects in flims, and the structure and elegance of bridges”.  ournal    of    Business   Management    &   Social    Sciences   Research   (JBM&SSR)   ISSN    No:   2319 ‐ 5614   Volume   2,   No.3,   March   2013    _________________________________________________________________________________   www.borjournals.com   Blue   Ocean   Research    Journals   31   Multidisciplinary in nature   Cuffaro (2002) states that all forms of design have three primary components: aesthetics, function and manufacturing. Aesthetic component refers to  beauty, appropriateness, and first.lasting impressions, funcion covers ergonomics, usability and features, and manufacturing involves manufacturing costs and perceives quality. Aesthetic component is essily transferable into experience design because of the feature of beauty and lasting impressions. In creating lasting impressions physical and aesthetical features are given due consideration in the designing of  pleasurable experiences. Design is not a separate thing which is away from us, but it is all around us which can be felt when sensed correctly. When it is implemented correctly it will be a memory creator and pleasure provider for its consumers by experience. Differentiation from others Experience must be designed in such a way that it totally varies from the design of others. So that the impact can be higher in the creation of memorable events which attracts the customer and provides them with pleasurable experience which can bring the consumer again and again and new consumers will also be pulled in by the exaggeration provided  by the existing satisfied consumer. A shopping mall which provides snow games, video games, football, dances, etc can differentiate itself because of the varied entertainments design it can impress varied group of peoples. Creation of themes If the experience is going to be designed with some concepts then also the theme can be an impressive design. For example during childrens day snacks from different areas can be brought together, sot the experience of tasting all the snacks at the same  place can be enjoyed by the kids. Such a theme of experience design for any group can create  pleasurable and memorable experiences in thbe minds of the consumers. Customer participation In designing the experience the ideas and views of the customers can also be implemented which will  be more effective as a good impression will be settled in the minds of the consumers. Which will create memorable and pleasurable experiences when their expectations are fulfilled. Avoiding negativeness   When a design receives a negative feedback from the cosumer or from retailer it is advisable to correct it immediatedly as it can create poaitive impression and which will generate the memorable and pleasurable experiences of the consumers. Boosting positiveness When positive feedbacks are being received by the design, it is a good feedback and steps must be taken to maintain it in the creation of pleasurable and memorable marketing events. If all the above mentioned things are given due consideration in the designing of experience then the experience will be apleasurable and memorable one can be a good tool of experience marketing. Developing pleasurable and memorable experience As marketing is a never ending process in the life of any human, it demands the marketers to have a continous update always to please the consumers. Marketing developed within people as barter system – exchange for money – buy and sell concept – Service concept – Experience concept. So marketing always need to be updated for  pleasing the consumers again and again. Henry James, Novelist, in his ‘The Art of Fiction’, 1884 has portraied “Experience is never limited and is never complete. It is an immense sensibility, a kind of huge spider-web of the finest silken threads suspended in the chamber of consciousness and catching every airbone particle in its tissue.” Aldous Huxley, Texts and Pretexts, Harper and Brothers, 1993 has said ”Experience is not what happens to you but what you make of what happens to you.” A clear understanding developed by the marketer about the different types of pleasure helps in developing the capabilities to please customers again and again, by stimulating his pleasures and developing it as an memorable experience. Types of Pleasure   The study of the different types of pleasure will give the marketer an idea of how to sell the experiences by creating lasting impression which gives the consumer greater pleasure and as a result of which the consumer starts the repeated useage of the same product  ournal    of    Business   Management    &   Social    Sciences   Research   (JBM&SSR)   ISSN    No:   2319 ‐ 5614   Volume   2,   No.3,   March   2013    _________________________________________________________________________________   www.borjournals.com   Blue   Ocean   Research    Journals   32   Based on consumer level of participation and consumers connection Pine and Gilmore (1999) had categorised four types of pleasurable experiences. They are entertainment, education, escapist and aesthetic. Based on consumer involvement with experiences Schmitt (1999) has categorisedd five experience modules such as sense, feel, think, relate and act. Everyday pleasure was experimented by Dube and Lebel (1999, 2003)  by categorising 60 common pleasures (reading, sex, movie, etc). Results showed four different categories of pleasure widely accepted by most of the people. The types of pleasure were sensory/physical pleasure, social pleasure, emotional pleasure and intellectual pleasure. Sensory/physical pleasure are emerging from intense sensations, it can be from natural or artifical sources. Social pleasure is generated fromsharing with friends and family, by considering oneself in relation with others. Emotional/asthetic pleasure is  born from a diversity of feelings triggered by observing and giving meaning to objects, events and people in the environment. Intellectual pleasure as reminiscent of Drucker’s (1941) accomplishment of pleasure represents “the emotional, pleasant consciousness that something valued has come about (e.g., mastery of a skill, sport performance)”. Delivering peasurable and memorable experiences Conceptual model of Pleasurable and Memorable Experiences:   “In the central nervous system is a function unit which we call the retilular activation system. This system is activated in the presence of outside stimuli. This excitement influences the other regions of the central nervous system and switches them on. Because of this system, an activation of the whole information processing system happens.” (Kroeber-Riel, Weinberg, 1999) The conceptual model is derived from Pine and Gilmore’s relams of an experience and from the experiential grid of Schmitt. The conceptual model  picturises the experience in a systematic manner of taking the given data, processing and producing the output. The model also gives a picturisation of senses as the input medium. All consumers are given due weightage as humans and the model is  being developed as per that. The environment from which datas are taken in are being categorised into nine types, the input is taken through an input medium and the output is also brought out through them. Watching movie in a theatre is an entertainment, if the consumer experiences the pleasure of good atmosphere in the theatre with neat and clean environment, correct temperature, good sound system, tasty snacks and neat toilet then it will be a memorable experience for the consumer. As aresult of the pleasurable and memorable experience gained by the consumer in the theatre he will turn  back to the theatre very often with his friends and family and he will propogate his experience through word of mouth. When a horticulture student is asked to create a garden practically, education becomes a memorable experience for the student and the thought of the memories shared by him with his friends and family gives a long lasting  pleasure. Consumers while entering a restaurant will experience the visual identity of the reception given in the restaurant, the neatness and proper arrangement of things. If he experiences a warm welcoming door keeper and a server welcoming
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