 Elliott, M. - Diemberger, H. - Clemente, M. (2014), Buddha's Word: The Life of Books in Tibet and Beyond, Cambridge: Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge

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   Elliott, M. - Diemberger, H. - Clemente, M. (2014), Buddha's Word: The Life of Books in Tibet and Beyond, Cambridge: Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge
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  The Life of Books in Tibet and Beyond BUDDHA’S WORD Hildegard Diemberger Mark ElliottMichela Clemente  The Life of Books in Tibet and Beyond Mark Elliott, Hildegard Diemberger & Michela Clemente With contributions by Alessandro Boesi, James Canary, Daniele Cuneo, Camillo Formigatti, Imre Galamboś, Agnieszka Helman-Ważny, Stephen Hugh-Jones, Craig Jamieson, Peter Kornicki, Filippo Lunardo, Sujit Sivasundaram, Anuradha Pallipurath, Karma Phuntsho, Paola Ricciardi, Aleix Ruiz-Falqués and Tomasz Ważny Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology University of Cambridge BUDDHA’S WORD MIASU  3  04 | Transforming Technologies: From Manuscript to Print to Digital Dharma Printing: The Wider Perspective Michela Clemente Printing and Patronage in Tibetan Buddhism Hildegard Diemberger & Michela Clemente The Maṇi bka’ ‘bum Michela Clemente Women as Patrons of Printing and Innovation Hildegard Diemberger 05 | What are Buddhist Scriptures Made of?   Plants used for Tibetan Paper-Making  Alessandro Boesi Tibetan Paper and other Supports Agnieszka Helman-Ważny  Colours Paola Ricciardi & Anuradha Pallipurath Ink and Writing  An Illuminated Tibetan Manuscript on Blue-black Paper of Works by Khedrub Geleg Pelzang and Tsongkhapa Filippo Lunardo & Michela Clemente Thingshog (mthing shog): Luxury illuminated  Manuscripts on Blue-black Paper   James Canary  Woodblocks and Covers Tomasz Ważny  Book Covers Mark Elliott, Filippo Lunardo & Michela Clemente Published to accompany the exhibition: BUDDHA’S WORDThe Life of Books in Tibet and Beyond28 May 2014 - 17 January 2015 Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology University of CambridgeDowning Street, Cambridge CB2 3DZUnited Kingdomwww.maa.cam.ac.uk All rights reservedMark Elliott, Hildegard Diemberger and Michela Clemente Joint authors and EditorsMuseum of Archaeology and Anthropology University of CambridgeTexts © 2014 the authors ISBN 978-0-947595-20-3 Design by Paul Allitt DesignPrincipal photography by Jocelyne Dudding. All photographs © MAA, University of Cambridge unless otherwise credited.Map by Dora Kemp 2014. Buddha’s Word: The Life of Books in Tibet and Beyond  is one of the outputs of the researchproject Transforming Technologies and Buddhist Book Culture: The Introduction of Printing and Digital Text Reproduction in Tibetan Societies , based at the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit,University of Cambridge, which is generously funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC research grant AH/H001599X/1).  Acknowledgements Preface Nicholas Thomas Introduction | Text as Relic in Tibet The Illuminated Perfection of Wisdom Camillo A. Formigatti Illuminations in the Nepalese Manuscript Craig Jamieson  Maṇi stones: Buddhist Letters on Landscapes 02 | Travelling Books Camillo A. Formigatti Pali Literature: From Orality to Written Text Aleix Ruiz-Falqués Palm-leaf Books of Sri Lanka Sujit Sivasundaram Translations and Consecrations: Inside a Chinese Statue Mark Elliott Votive Manuscripts Inside the Guanyin Statue Imre Galamboś A Multi-lingual Thangkha from Mongolia East Asian Trajectories and Transformations Peter Kornicki 03 | Tibetan Book Culture Body, Speech and Mind in the Tibetan ContextThe altar Padmasambhava’s Chronicles Michela Clemente The Protective Power of Words Tsha tsha Thangka of Tsongkhapa Mark Elliott & Filippo Lunardo 06 | The Cambridge Collections The South Asian Manuscripts in the Cambridge University Library  Camillo A. Formigatti  Ādiyogasamādhi Daniele Cuneo Illuminated Dhāraṇī Manuscripts Daniele Cuneo   The Tibetan Collection in Cambridge University Library  Karma Phuntsho Tsongkhapa’s Commentaries on the Yogācārabhūmi Filippo Lunardo The  ĀryāparimitāyurjñānanāmamahāyānasūtraThe Japanese Buddhist collection in the Cambridge University Library  Peter Kornicki Collecting Tibet at MAA Mark ElliottPrayer Wheels 07 | Digital Paths to Tibetan Literature Hildegard Diemberger & Stephen Hugh-Jones Bibliography Contents  BUDDHA’S WORD 45   Acknowledgements Buddha’s Word  is a landmark exhibition for the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. In  the past, visitors may well have assumed that the strengths of the Museum’s ethnographic collections were above all in materials from Africa, the Pacific and from native America. In fact, collections from many parts of Asia, from Siberia to island Southeast Asia, from the Himalayas, India, Sri Lanka and Burma are of exceptional importance in cultural, artistic and historical terms. Much of the material was gathered by fieldworkers and is precisely provenanced and complemented by evocative archives and images  that help us understand the local values of the extraordinary range of things we now care for. What is distinctive about MAA’s collections is this richness of context and information, that animates this very special exhibition.In 2012, Dr Mark Elliott was appointed Senior Curator in Anthropology – the first time in decades  that any member of the Museum’s permanent curatorial staff possessed expertise in Asia. The Museum is now in a position to explore, analyse, research and exhibit collections from Asia. Buddha’s Word  arises from his collaboration with Dr Hildegard Diemberger and others in Social Anthropology and the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit of the University of Cambridge. The exhibition offers not only a fresh view of the place of books in a great world religion, a remarkable world of travel and trade, it has much  to offer anthropological and other theories of material culture, issues that have been imaginatively reconceived in recent years. Books are not just texts but objects, indeed works of art, of an especially potent kind. At a moment when some believe  that the physical book is nearing the end of its life,  this exhibition, focussed on very spiritual and very physical books illuminates our understanding of the lives and power that books have had and still do have. Such books – and this book – may turn out to have much to offer, for generations to come. Nicholas Thomas DirectorMuseum of Archaeology and Anthropology This exhibition is one outcome of a series of Cambridge-based, linked projects carried out over the past decade. These projects include the ‘Tibetan–Mongolian Rare Books and Manuscripts Project’; ‘The Historical Study and Documentation of  the Padgling Traditions in Bhutan’; ‘A Tibetan Woman Lama and her Reincarnations: The Samding Dorje Phagmo of Tibet’; ‘Transforming Technologies and Buddhist Book Culture: The Introduction of Printing and Digital Text Reproduction in Tibetan Societies’; and the ‘Sanskrit Manuscript Project’, all funded by  the British Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), and the ‘Tibetan Book Evolution and Technology’ (TiBET), supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship.The exhibition also reflects many years of research collaboration between Cambridge and  the British Library, the Tibetan Academy of Social Sciences, the National Library of Mongolia, the National Library of Bhutan, the Paltseg Research Institute, the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center and other research institutions across the world. By studying Buddhist scriptures in their wider social and cultural context it was possible to reconnect them  to their place of srcin and in some cases provide  the basis for digital repatriation of the materials to monastic communities and scholarly institutions in Tibet and Nepal. Thanks to scholarly exchange schemes run by the Mongolia & Inner Asia Studies Unit, Tibetan scholars have been able to engage directly with these materials providing new insights and understandings of their cultural significance. The exhibition, catalogue and events that surround it are the result of years of hard work and commitment from an extraordinary team of museum staff, researchers, authors, volunteers and experts from around the world who have generously contributed their time and expertise. We are enormously grateful to everyone who made it possible, including:Matt Buckley, Bob Bourne, Rachel Hand, Marcus Miller, Verity Sanderson, Wendy Brown, Liz Haslemere, Sarah-Jane Harknett, Lucie Carreau, Libby Peachey, Anita Herle, Jocelyne Dudding,  Jon Dawson, Kirstie Williams, Kloe Rumsey, Jenny Mathiasson, Rachel Howie, Dora Kemp, Adrian Newman, Teresa Heady, Michael Wheeler, Julie Dawson, Chris Titmus, Jo Dillon, Susan Fung, Mei Yuen Ku, Magda Srienc, Amandas Ong, Tsering Dawa Sharshon, Lobsang Yongdan, Porong Dawa, Dawa Dargye, Shen Yiming, Urmila Nair, Anne Chippindale, Krisna Uk, Anne Blackburn, Jacqueline Filliozat, Emma Martin, Tony Pilmer, Vincenzo Vergiani, Uradyn Bulag, Jeff Wallman, Pasang Wangdu, Karma Delek, Burkhard Quessel, Ato Rinpoche, Uranchimeg Ujeed, Jill Whitelock, Ben Outhwaite, Lucy Cheng, Jim Bloxam, Dan Pemberton, Sarah Finney, Rob Theodore, Terry Chilvers, Christopher Kaplonski, Tim Barrett, Cristina Scherrer-Schaub, Paul Harrison, Bruce Huett, Kulung Karma, Zenkar Rinpoche and the late Gene Smith. Scattered fragments of rare twelfth-century illuminated Tibetan texts from Keru Lhakang Temple, Central Tibet  – before being digitised, restored and re-ordered. Photograph by Pasang Wangdu, 2002 Preface  BUDDHA’S WORD 67   TEXT AS RELIC IN TIBET |   At the dawn of civilisation, as many Tibetan histories  tell us, a text fell from heaven onto the royal palace of Yumbu Lakhang (Yum bu lha khang) in Central Tibet. According to some versions of the story it was  the book of a Buddhist sūtra while for others it was  the set of syllables of the mantra Oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ , the mantra of Avalokiteśvara, the protector of Tibet. In either case, the piece of writing that fell was received by the illiterate Buddhist king of the  time. Not knowing what to do with it, the king placed  the text in a casket and worshipped it. The sacred scripture duly dispensed its blessing and he became strong and youthful. It was his descendant, the Tibetan Emperor Songtsen Gampo (Srong btsan sgam po, d. 649) who would eventually gain access to the content, sending a minister to northern India to order  the creation of the Tibetan script, thus enabling the  translation of Buddhist scriptures into Tibetan.This legendary account of the initial contact between Tibetans and the Buddhist civilisations that surrounded Tibet draws attention to the power of the written word. It highlights the way in which anything with writing upon it can have a ritual efficacy that goes beyond what the writing has to say. It also tells us that medium and message are tightly intertwined, since it is this initial legendary encounter  that is said to have provided the stimulus for the creation of Tibetan writing and, with it, Tibetan Buddhist civilisation. Since then, Buddhist scriptures have become central to Tibetan culture, not only as the medium for the transmission of Buddhist  teachings but also as artefacts and ritual objects. As Introduction   |  TEXT AS RELIC IN TIBET such they were also much sought after by western  travellers and explorers in their hunt for traces of  the lost Buddhist civilisation of India.In the eyes of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europeans, Tibet was an isolated and magic place, a repository of secret knowledge, at  the northern edge of the British Empire. This was especially so after the archaeological discoveries of ancient Buddhist sites in India, where Buddhism had disappeared after the twelfth century. The roof of the world thus exercised an irresistible attraction to western travellers, imperial officials and explorers. Spiritual curiosity was often combined with commercial aspirations and military ambitions. It is therefore not surprising that Cambridge, as one of the hubs for the training of British civil servants and scholars, ended up accumulating collections of a wide range of objects coming from Tibet and  the Himalayas, adding significantly to those coming from other parts of Asia. Buddhist scriptures were strongly represented in these holdings, since scholars and explorers seeking the vestiges of the ancient Indian Buddhist civilisation were convinced that some of the textual heritage that had disappeared in India was still preserved in Tibet.Despite western perceptions of Tibet as an isolated, impenetrable stronghold, the roof of the world was actually at the crossroads of Buddhist countries. It was part of a wider Buddhist ecumene and, relatively, a latecomer in embracing Buddhist religion, which it absorbed from different directions. At the same time Tibet became a centre for the later expansion of Buddhism into Inner Asia, especially Mongolia, and thanks to the accuracy of Tibetan  translations, it was also an important point of spiritual reference for areas that had come under Buddhist influence at an earlier stage. Although Book cover  (detail, also see page 118 ) Gilt wood carving, red and black pigment.Tibet. 15th century.
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