Confessionalisation and clan cohesion: Ireland’s contribution to Scottish Catholic renewal in the 17th century

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    171 CONFESSIONALIZATION ANDCLAN COHESION: IRELAND’SCONTRIBUTION TO SCOTTISHCATHOLIC RENEWAL IN THESEVENTEENTH CENTURY by R. Scott SpuRlock  the sry f he reaishi bewee user ad Sad drig he seveeeh century has long been dominated by the ow of people and ideas from Scotland  he rh f Iread. this, hwever, beies he rmie re ha Iread hadi he sia ad ra hisry f he Weser Ises ad Highads f Saddrig ha ery. this aer arges ha f eve greaer imrae  heresrgee f cahiism i he Sish Gaidhealtachd  ha a Rme drive Counter-Reformation were the nancial support and personnel provided by Ulster  cahis. I he fae f aggressive Sar iies, cahiism was rejveaed and became an ideological justication for asserting traditional rights in the face f gverme saied, presa bessed, irsis i he Weser Ises.Mrever, i he fae f hisrigrahy ha has arged fr he ia disie-grai f caDad hrgh he seveeeh ery, his arie exres heways he as ad heir eighbrs isired, fded ad faiiaed he reviva f cahiism i he Gaidhealtachd  . p s-trideie cahiism has radiiay bee dersd  havemade a miima ima  he Gaei seaig wes f Saddrig he seveeeh ery. Havig bee hriay dersaffed,he cahi chrh i he Weser Ises was i a dire sae by heRefrmai. Sbseqey, i eered i a erid bewee 1560 ad1620 abeed by Aa Maies ad Jh l. cambe as ‘mribd’. 1  Whie cahi Ss eges bega  aear  he ie frmas eary as 1580, hey referred lwad, Egish seaig sdes Gaei seaig es, whih resed i a dearh f Gaei seaigSs riess i he geerais afer he Refrmai ad hrgh msf he fwig ery. Maies hs arges fr egigibe Sisheffrs  rseyise Sish Gaedm   ad a vera miima egayfr missiary edeavrs. 2 Ye Sish based aems were  hey es made. Begiig i 1619 a missi saffed by Irish Frais-as bega  erae i he Gaidhealtachd  , he Gaei seaig regisf Sad. this  me haeges. Ardig  may hisrias, asevere a f ehsiasm frm he Irish eges reqesed  rvideGaei seaig missiaries bighed he missi, ad has ed  a  172   REcuSAnt HIStoRY  revaiig ierreai ha he missi was: direed frm pragadaFide, saffed by Irish Fraisas frm hesia iea Irish eges,ad  ae side he dire jrisdii f he missiers’ serirsder he mia versigh f he i i Brsses. Hwever, shemhasis  iea ieress ad disieress has served  d hemissi’s modus operandi and minimized its lasting signicance to the vera heriage f he Gaidhealtachd  . 3  tradiia cahi as f he erid d  vary frm hisa  ay grea exe, her ha emhasizig he be idivida efforts of the missioners to work in incredibly difcult conditions while  beig say derfded ad faig ra raies, ariaryreaig  marriage, ha eessiaed seiay assiged wers Rmewas hesia  disese. 4 Addiiay hese as have shw ari-ar ieres i ierreig aims wihi he missiaries’ w rers that during the rst decade of the mission (between 1619 and 1628) hey ‘vered’ ver 10,000 ee i he Weser Ises. these aemshave s far rved smewha saisfary, ariary bease hearge mbers f versis were vigrsy defeded by he riessdesie he fa ha hey heigheed ers i Rme. pragada   Fide,eraged by lwad Ss ergy residig  he ie, sri-ized he rers as beig beievabe ad hreaeed  ermiae hemissi. 5 Upon demands for clarication and precise lists, CorneliusWard, a leading gure on the mission, produced a more precise tally of  12,269. 6 Raher ha mdifyig rers  aease riiism, he missi-aries resded by dig heir bes  rvide evidee fr he harvesha hey hemseves ereived as remarabe. Ye raher ha seeig wha was disiive ab he missi  he Gaidhealtachd  , he his-rigrahy has eded  ierre i hrgh he mihi rism f heisiia mdes rsed by pragada whih mirrred he idea aers f wr arried  i her regis f he wrd. Wha is riafr dersadig he resrgee f cahiism i Gaei seaig Scotland is that it was not primarily driven by Rome, nor did it reect mdes f cer-Refrmai frm esewhere i Ere.tw ree wrs by Fia Madad ad lisa crry have made signicant strides in highlighting the important sociological role of  cahiism i he Sish Gaidhealtachd  . Hwever, js ie hehisrigrahy hey have iheried, hey ersis i viewig ieacahi hierarhies as he wer brers i missiary edeavrs. As ares, w radiia ierreais ersis: he missis had a miimaima ad hey were ay deede  iea sr. 7 Ye,whie Madad arges he Fraisas, ‘fwig he Jesi gideiesae  by ms cahi missiaries … aid siderabe aei  the social hierarchy in the hope of inuencing the general population’, a ress she refers  as ‘ivaig he Sish  Fine r a eie’,he evidee srs a mh mre raive ay ariiai. 8 Fr his    conFESSIonAlIZAtIon AnD clAn coHESIon   173 reas, desie he grea ses ae frward by crry ad Madad, he rimary qesi remais: wha reay rmed he rer f a residecahi eria resee i Gaei seaig Sad afer a sixy year absee ad why? the aswer is ha a he behes f sme a eies i Scotland, and with their nancial provision, a process of confessional -izai  ae amg as. Frm as eary as he ae 1560s aeasarrived i Rme fr missiaries  be se  Sad. Afer reeaedreqess i 1611, he Ss Fraisa Jh ogivie arried  a iiiareaissae missi i 1612. 9 Wha is imra  e here is hahe iiia imes fr missis seem  have rigiaed frm Sadraher ha frm he ie. The missions to the Western Isles can be broadly dened in threeseparate phases. The rst took place between 1619 and 1647, crewed  by a mber f Irish Fraisas reed by pragada   exeedfr i mber; he sed saffed by regars, rimariy Vieias,eraed bewee 1651 ad 1679; ad, he hird rereseed a reewedFraisa edeavr bewee 1665 ad 1687. I a hree haseshe wr was  seaive, as revis hisrias have eded sgges, r did hey maeriaize  f he be. Frm he se, hesemissis were faiiaed, ad i aears egieered, by eemes wihi ClanDonald. A letter dated a full nine months before the rst Franciscan missiers arrived i he Weser Ises was se frm cardia Brghesei Rme  he i i Brsses, wh a his ime was ressibe fr he affairs f Sad, asig him  ersade he Irish Fraisas alvai  rvide sme missiaries fr Sad ‘der he gidaef a Sish aird amed MaDad’. 10 The identication of a particular  idivida i Sad befre he raia asibiiy f sh a missihad eve bee aseraied may idiae ha he S had sbmied asiai fr a missi ad ffered  rvide he rmised gidae.ceraiy a few years aer, bewee Febrary 1621 ad Jy 1623, addi-ia reqess ame frm Sad fr Irish Fraisas, erhas frmhe same sre. 11 the rigia reqes fr a missi ame frm ‘Bar di Marada,szesse’. cahds Gibi aribes his ers wih beig a MacDonald, but with no specication as to the precise identity of this  ers. there are a mber f viabe adidaes, b he ms ieyare Sir James MaDad f krisay, c ciah, Sir RadaMaDe, ear f Arim, ad ssiby Iai Midearah, wefh hief  of Clanranald. After the rebellion on Islay Sir James ed to Ireland and hid wih a w reseer f riess, befre gig i exie i Saii 1615. 12 ths he was  he ie fraerizig wih her Sscahis ad aeaig  hem fr sr i regaiig Isay, idighe exied seveh ear f Argy wh had vered  cahiism, ahe ime he reqes fr Irish missiaries arrived i Rme. 13 Mrever,he wre  he arhbish f tam, Free cry, i 1616: ‘Yr   174   REcuSAnt HIStoRY lrdshi ws, ad a exai beer ha I d, wh I am ad whaI am aabe f dig  he he ahi ase i Sad’. 14 thease fr ssaied sr frm Sir James MaDad is qesiabe,hwever. He was smmsed  rer frm exie wih his -sir-ar, MaDad f keh, i 1619 ad remaied i ld ihis deah i 1626 wih a heir ‘ revege his wrgs ad hse f his a  he cambe’. 15 I shd be ed ha desie i is to the Campbells (Sir James married the sister of Sir John Campbell of Cawdor) and a willingness to fraternize with the exiled earl of Argyll, Sir James ersised i seeig cambe aggressi as he rimary hrea his heriabe righs. I 1615 he deared  he Sereary f Sae ha‘if his Majesie be  wiig ha I sa be his heiges ee i Ia, fr Gddis ase e his Majesie had i i his awi had; fr ha is erae,I wi die befir I sie a cambe sses i’. 16 Ahgh his ewrs adwiigess  assis he cahi ase are eary aesed, as a exiehis hads  gidae d y be very imied. 17  Bh c ciah ad Rada MaDe are far mre iey adi-daes. Eah f hem was aeed as a dev cahi by ahriies he ie a he ime he missi bega. I has as bee sggesedha c ciah’s iraia saiigs i 1616, afer his ivveme ihe Isay rebei, were  merey fr eiary gai ad may have  been part of an expedition to nd a suitable base to establish a Catholic missi. tha here may be sme rh i his is sggesed by bh Jhcambe ad Fia Madad wh e ha he earies missi rer for 1624 and 1625 (those from the years 1619 to 1623 are not extant) rerds visis  he same isads c ciah had visied i 1616:texa, Isay, csay, M, caa, nrh uis ad Ia. 18 RadaMaDe as ayed a rmie re i he missi, whih wi be discussed below. While the Italian source clearly identies ‘Marandal’ as a S, i is highy iey ha MaDe wd have desribed himsef as s, i igh f his aims  he ads f ca Iai Mhòr, i ay reqes Rme fr missiaries. Whie qesis remai ver he ideiy f he‘Bar di Marada’, here is  shrage f adidaes amg he eief caDad. Mre imra ha erhas ideifyig a sige idi-vida is ig ha hese idividas were fe sey ied. Drigc ciah’s 1616 fray hrgh he Hebrides he feased a he hme of the daughter of Angus of Dunyveg (Sir James MacDonald’s sister) ad visied he fser brher f Arim. 19 these exeded i ewrs ayed a imra ar i fserig cahiism i he Gaidhealtachd  . One nal possibility for the mysterious ‘Marandal’ is Ian Muideartach, ahgh rers idiae he was  ‘vered’ i 1624. this,hwever, wd  eessariy re him . cversi was a seerm ha d eqay mea reie. Mrever, a 1626 rer pragada desribes him as he ‘rer f he whe a f Raadi whih by mm se hey rfess bediee  he Hy See,    conFESSIonAlIZAtIon AnD clAn coHESIon   175 asig asi beedii ad favr fr he sread f he faih i hewhe f Sad’. 20 Hee he ame  ay a rmie re wihi he rst few years of the mission and his identication as the leading gure i ‘he a f Raad’ d easiy a fr beig aed ‘Bar diMarada’ i a Iaia sre.Js as iia fars ribed  he maieae f cahiismi he Sish lwads drig he seveeeh ery, s  hey ayed a rmie ar i he reirdi f a missiary reseei he Ises. pressres  he radiia wer srres f he WeserIses ireased frm he asesi f James VI  he Egish hre, ariary hrgh he imemeai f he Saes f Ia i 1609ad heir ageda reaig  feds, edai ad reigi. By 1616 mre reise mehaisms fr efrig rya ahriy were i ae. the risef ie as sh as he Makezies ad cambes awed he ssi- biiy fr rya ahriy  be imsed i he Ises wih he id f exese reqired fr he exediis fded i 1596, 1599, 1605, 1607ad 1608. 21 I he ew mde ie as arried he s f amaigig  before being recompensed by the expansion of inuence and territory at heir viim’s exese. oe f he rimary arges f his rya iywas caDad, wh sie he redi f he lrdshi f he Ises in 1493 had suffered internally from severe inghting and fragmentation whie as faig ersise exera ressre frm era rya ahriyad cambe erahmes. I 1607 he radiia MaDad erri-ries f kiyre were give  he seveh ear f Argy by rya harer ad hrgh simiar iies Isay aer fe i cambe hads as we.I ha same year, he privy ci isred he ear f Argy  ae‘ai f bde’ agais caDad, ‘beig he srges ier f ahe bre hiead me, qha ever i ay aige wer ivi … b evir wer assiseris f he rher Irishe ee … i a heir rebeiis’.the rder sgh he a’s ‘rieig  ad er sressig’  hegrds ha ‘sa g as he said ca Dad remayes remvi frhf he saidis adis, his Majesie r a heris sa haf ay rffei, adhe iviiie ad barbariies a iew h y hair [Iread] bi he Ies’. 22 Hwever, rary  radiia ierreais f he dire straights of Clan Iain Mhòr (ClanDonald South) resulting from internal divisis i he wae f Srey By MaDe’s deah i 1590 adireased ressre frm he rw afer 1603, caDad bega demsrae a srg iy f deveig ad sidaig a is by he 1610s. 23  Afer sig kiyre i 1607 ad faig a simiar igh wih Isay,Ags MaDad f Dyveg aeared i S Gies’ cahedra i 1612 reeive redemi f he isad i he fae f cambe aems   buy it. Present with Angus was Sir Randall MacDonnell, later rst earl of  Arim. 24 I sar ras  he rif asribed  he Arim ad Dyveg brahes f caDad Sh, his asi eds  sgges a ied
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