Barceló, J.A.; Cuesta, J.A:; del Castillo, F. Galán, J.M.; Mameli, L., Miguel, F.; Santos, J. I.; Vilà, X., Simulating Prehistoric Ethnicity. The case of Patagonian hunter-gatherers.

Please download to get full document.

View again

All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
  Barceló, J.A.; Cuesta, J.A:; del Castillo, F. Galán, J.M.; Mameli, L., Miguel, F.; Santos, J. I.; Vilà, X., Simulating Prehistoric Ethnicity. The case of Patagonian hunter-gatherers.
  Proceedings of the 38 th  Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, CAA2010 F. Contreras, M. Farjas and F.J. Melero (eds.) Simulating Prehistoric Ethnicity.The Case of Patagonian Hunter-gatherers Barceló., J.A. 1 , Cuesta, J.A.   Castillo, !. "el 1  #al$n, J.%. &  %ameli, '. 1  %iguel, !. (  Santos, J. ). & , *il+, .  1 Dpto. Prehistoria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain 2 GISC, Departamento de atem!ticas, Universidad Carlos III adrid " I#SIS$C, %scuela Polit&cnica Superior, Universidad de Bur'os ( )acultad de Sociolo'*a, Universidad Aut+noma de Barcelona  $-%, Dept. %conom*a  /0. %con+mica, Universidad Aut+noma de Barcelona.,,,,,,, The basis of this research project is the computer simulation of the emergence of ethnicity and cultural differentiation in !rehistory. "e propose a predictive simulation of a historical case #here the $no#ledge about the simulated social system is available at the necessary level of detail, using data from archaeological, ethnological, and historical research. The aim of this research is to test e%isting social theories of social evolution through history by creating a computer model of a theoretically possible society in #hich #e may identify yet un$no#n social relation ships and interactions. &ey#ords'  Simulation, /unter'atherer, Pata'onia, %thnicit. 1. )ntro"uction. he identi3ication o3 4ethnic 'roups4 in the usa'e o3 social scientists has o3ten re3lected inaccurate la5els more than social realities. hat is to sa, the identi3ication o3 an ethnic 'roup 5 outsiders, e.'. anthropolo'ists, ma not coincide 6ith the sel3identi3ication o3 the mem5ers o3 that 'roup.An ethnic 'roup is a 'roup o3 people 6hose mem5ers e7plicitl re'ard themselves and are re'arded 5 others as trul distinctive, throu'h a common herita'e that is real or assumed sharin' 8cultural9 characteristics. em5ers o3 an ethnic 'roup are conscious o3 5elon'in' to a di33erentiated 'roup: moreover ethnic identit is 3urther mar;ed 5 the reco'nition 3rom others o3 a 'roup<s distinctiveness =BA>/, 1?@?: -I#C%#, 1?(: $#%S, 1??: C$/%#, 2.Additionall, it can 5e ar'ued that the components o3 ethnicit mostl arise in situations o3 contact and contrast, 5ein' interaction  the motor o3 'eneration o3 cate'ories o3 ascription and ethnic di33erentiation. Such an interaction should 5e considered 5oth positive =e7chan'e and ne'ative =con3lict, in such a 6a that di33erent 6as o3 social 3usion, 3ission and 3riction develops a set o3 representations and values that set the terms 3rom 6hich social clusterin' and sel3ascriptions are constructed. Processes that result in the emer'ence o3 such inclusiveness are called ethno'enesis =E%B%>, 1?22: BA#$#, 2. Given that those processes should 5e analFed in 5ehavioral terms, 6e should accentuate dnamic and ne'otia5le social identities, involvin' 5oth social  permea5ilit o3 5orders and reectin' the monolithic cate'ories o3 common cultural 3orms such as lan'ua'e or  particular 'enetic or cultural traits. he ;e o3 our perspective is that an shared traits amon' a'ents, their 5ehavior, their 5elie3s, and their lan'ua'e, the products o3 their 6or; andHor the material or immaterial results o3 their actions should 5e contin'ent to the social interaction process that 'enerated those traits. In so sain', 6e 3ollo6 a constructive approach to 8ethnicit9. his conception o3 ethnicit is hardl applica5le to prehistor, 'iven the limitation o3 data. he onl ;no6led'e a5out the most remote past is composed 5 the material conseuences o3 actions havin' 5een per3ormed then. As a conseuence, archaeolo'ists usuall emphasiFe 8o5serva5le similarities9 as a surro'ate o3 8ethnicit9.  Agent-Based Social Simulation in Archaeology   (.). *arcel+ et al.  -imulating !rehistoric thnicity.The case of !atagonian huntergatherers Certainl, ethnic 'roups are usuall e7pressed as a set o3 shared norms, transmitted throu'h 5elie3s, reli'ion, lan'ua'e... he similarit in lan'ua'e and material culture or the constriction o3 'roups to a restricted 'eo'raphical area can 5e re'arded as the conseuence o3 people that 6or;ed to'ether and had common 'oals, and people that se're'ate those 6ho neither 6or; nor cooperate 6ith them. he similarit in 5iolo'ical phenotpe, 3or instance, is the result o3 the 6a a'ents that reproduce amon' them chose their reproductive mates 6ithin an alread de3ined 'roup. he more cultural transmission amon' individuals connected 5 the same social net6or;, the more similar are the a'ents, their actions and the material and immaterial conseuences o3 their actions. #evertheless, relin' onl on o5serva5le similarities is misleadin' 5ecause the mere commonalit is not a su33icient condition to understand the 3ormation o3 an a''re'ate o3 people. ateriall e7pressed, cultural 5oundaries are not al6as clearl de3ined, nor necessaril correspond 6ith ethnic 5oundaries. hen, is the archaeolo'ical stud o3 prehistoric ethnicities impossi5le JEe cannot travel to the past in an e33ective 6a 5ut 6e can do it in a virtual 6a. /istor onl runs once, 5ut inside a computer a virtual model o3 the historical past ma run in3initel man times. In the computer, 6e can e7plore =5 alterin' the varia5les the entire  possible ran'e o3 outcomes 3or di33erent past 5ehaviors. he  5asis o3 this research proect is then simulatin' inside a computer 6hat 6e ;no6 a5out actions that too; place in the past and e7perimentin' 6ith the e33ects the ma  produce in such a virtual 6orld.$ur aim is to simulate human 5ein's 8livin'9 in a virtual environment that is an a5straction de3ined 5 us on the  5asis o3 social theor andHor historical data =BA>C%KL, 2M. In the 3rame6or; o3 a'ent5ased modelin', the arti3icial societies 6e aim at 5uildin' are 5ased on a set o3 simulated social a'ents represented as mem5ers o3 an evolvin' =virtual population o3 social procedures =mechanisms, 6hich determine important aspects o3 the  population structure and development and there3ore o3 the individualNs 5ehavior. Inside the computer simulation, and similarl to 6hat prehistoric people did in their real 6orld, computer a'ents act as in3luenced 5 other a'ents rein3orcin' some actions, inter3erin' 6ith others, and even sometimes preventin' the action o3 other  people. >unnin' a computer model o3 a prehistoric societ simpl amounts to instantiate the simulated populations o3 people, lettin' the a'ents interact, and monitorin' 6hat emer'es. Althou'h em5odied a'ents tend to 5e computationall simple and the 8virtuall9 live in com putationall simpli3ied environments, i3 one places man a'ents to'ether in the same environment interestin' collective 5ehaviors tend to emer'e 3rom their interactions. Ehat emerges  3rom the collective e7ecution o3 rules  pac;a'ed in 3orm o3 a'ents is a 'radual updatin' o3 a'entNs 5elie3s and the concomitant modi3ication o3 their  plans, arrivin' at some 3orm o3  social order  . his should  5e conceived as an 3orm o3 sstemic structurin' 6hich is su33icientl sta5le, to 5e considered the conseuence o3 social sel3or'aniFation and sel3reproduction throu'h the actions o3 the a'ents, or consciousl orchestrated 5 =some o3 them. . The Case of Prehistoric Patagonia. Instead o3 6or;in' directl on a universal theoretical model, 6e have pre3erred a predictive simulation o3 a historical case 6here the ;no6led'e a5out the simulated social sstem is availa5le at a necessar level o3 detail, usin' data 3rom archaeolo'ical, ethnolo'ical, and historical research. he aim o3 this research is to test e7istin' social theories o3 social evolution throu'h histor 5 creatin' di33erent computer models o3 theoreticall possi5le societies in 6hich 6e ma identi3 et un;no6n social relationships and interactions. Eh Pata'oniaJ he historical process o3 those societies is 6ell ;no6n not onl throu'h archaeolo' 5ut also 3rom the ethno'raphical record =BA>C%KL et al  ., 2?. Some ears a'o, hunter 'atherer practices coe7isted 6ith a capitalist econom. As in an hunter'atherer historical situation, Pata'onians moved 3rom place to place 3or social and political needs, in such a 6a that e7tremel lon' and comple7 interaction net6or;s developed. Goods and in3ormation traveled more than people 6ould. here3ore, phsical mo5ilit 6as an economic strate', sociall implemented, that allo6ed the e7ploitation o3 6ider economic territories and simultaneousl contri5uted to the creation o3 social e7chan'e net6or;s. As a conseuence o3 these mo5ilit patterns, lin'uistic, cultural, economic and even territorial 3rontiers 6ere e7tremel permea5le, su''estin' a considera5le de'ree o3 population mi7ture. In Pata'onia, 5iolo'ical and lin'uistic di33erentiation amon' human 'roups has 5een 3ound to 5e stron'l associated 6ith spatial separation. Accordin' to this vie6, 6e propose an 8isolation 5 distance9 hpothesis predictin' that human 'roups 6ill re3lect 'eo'raphic separation in the pattern o3 their 5et6een'roup distances. he eventual result is a 'reater similarit 5et6een 'eo'raphicall pro7imal populations and increasin' di33erences 5et6een 'roups that are 3urther and 3urther apart. he ;e o3 our e7planator model is that an shared traits amon' prehistoric Pata'onian inha5itants, their 5ehavior, their 5elie3s, and their lan'ua'e, the products o3 their 6or; andHor the material or immaterial results o3 their actions should 5e contin'ent to the social interaction processes that 'enerated those traits. A3ter all, 6hat has traditionall 5een called 8ethnic9 di33erentiation is nothin' more than a conseuence o3 the diverse de'rees o3 social interaction 5et6een human communities. In so sain', 6e su''est that the emer'ence o3 'roups or clusters o3 social a'ents =8ethnic9 'roups in Pata'onia 6as the conseuence o3 the 6a di33erent social a'ents interacted alon' a period o3 time. And the ma have in CAA2! Fusion o" Cultures   /. 0ontreras, M. /arjas 1 /.(. Melero 2eds.  !roceedings of 0))45676 /usion of 0ultures teracted 3or man reasons and in man 6asO cooperatin' to acuire su5sistence, cooperatin' to produce tools and instruments, cooperatin' to e7chan'e su5sistence andHor tools, cooperatin' 3or reproducin' themselves, re3usin' such cooperation, or compellin' other a'ents to 6or; in their o6n 5ene3it, etc. Ear and con3lict are also another ;ind o3 interaction. In all those cases, interactions var in intensit and 3reuenc de3inin' a comple7 net6or; o3 positive or ne'ative inter'roup relationships. As a result, a'ents adopt similar activities, and their actions tend to 'enerate similar results. &. A reliminary comuter mo"el of Ethnicity !ormation $5viousl 6e cannot implement the comple7ities o3 ethno'enesis 3ormation in a computer model. Ee pre3er to implement some parts o3 a 3uture computer model to understand the social mechanisms involved in the emer'ence o3 social order. Some enhancements to this model are 3oreseen, as it 6ill 5e e7plained later.he preliminar model is ver simple 5ut it ma;es em phasis on the main components to understand the emer'ence o3 ethnicit =)i'ure 1. Ket us ima'ine a population o3 virtual a'ents, movin' randoml in search 3or resources, and or'aniFed in households as ancient Pata'onians did. here are t6o ;inds o3 economic activitiesO 'atherin', 6hich is an individual tas;, and huntin', 6hich is onl possi5le 6hen the mem5ers o3 di33erent, culturall similar households cooperate. here are increasin' returns to cooperation, i.e. 3amilies 'et more resources 6or;in' to'ether than individuall, modulated  5 the 'lo5al parameter returnstocooperation . #evertheless, huntin' is also a33ected 5 diminishing   mar'inal returns relative to the num5er o3 cooperatin' households =another model parameter. o 3ind cooperators, households should interact 6ith others 6ithin a sin'le local nei'h5orhood its 'eo'raphical radius is a model parameter, 6ithin the limits allo6ed 5 their perceived cultural similarit. /ouseholds have a distinctive cultural identit, modeled as a  /   dimensional space o3 cultural 3eatures, each 6ith 8  di33erent cultural traits. his is a surro'ate 3or lan'ua'e and cultural values di33erences. In this simple model 6e are not interested in the precise representation o3 6hat di33erentiate 8cultures9, 5ut onl in the intensit o3 such a di33erence. Cultural similarit is measured as the relative num5er o3 shared cultural dimensions. Conseuentl, t6o households consider themselves as 5elon'in' to the same 8ethnic9 'roup i3 the are appropriatel culturall similar, that is, i3 their cultural similarit is a5ove a critical threshold, also a model  parameter.8Culture9 di33uses 6ithin population throu'h a local imitation process. Eith a 3i7ed pro5a5ilit level a household copies some trait o3 the mode o3 her 'roup, in such a 6a that consensus increases and 8culturall9 homo'eneous 'roups tend to emer'e. oreover, 8culture9 evolves throu'h local mutation, that is, the attained levels o3 8cultural9 identit are also su5ect to random cultural dri3t. Eith a 3i7ed pro5a5ilit level, a household mutates one o3 her cultural traits 6hich is simultaneousl copied 5 her 'roup =6e assume that 'eo'raphical pro7imit ensures that the culture o3 all 'roup mem 5ers evolves in the same direction.In a preliminar and oversimpli3ied implementation, 6e consider onl a constant population o3 a'ents =households, movin' randoml in search 3or resources and interactin' 6ith others located in the same 'eo'raphical area and 5elon'in' to the same ethnic 'roup, in order to enhance their chances o3 su5sistin'. Kocal interactions 3acilitate cultural di33usion and ethnic di33erentiation.At a time period t   the household  j  'ets resources accordin' to the 3ollo6in' production 3unction =%.1O 9  j  t  = c  j ∑ $  ∈ :  j  t   c $    ∑ $  ∈ :  j c $    = c  j   ∑ $  ∈ :  j  t   c $   − 1 #ith     1 6here c$   are the 3amilies capacities and ; modulates increasin' returns to cooperation. he surplus o3 the household  j  depends on a depreciation parameter $   and a minimum su5sistence. here3ore, accordin' to the %.2O -   j  t   1 = [ 9  j  t   -   j  t   1 −− -  o  ] )amilies< ma7imum a'e 3ollo6s a Poisson distri5ution 6hose mean is the parameter lifee%pectancy . Ehenever a household dies, either 5 old a'e or starvin', she is re placed. he ne6comer inherits the characteristics o3 a household in the population chosen throu'h a roulette 6heel, i.e. 3amilies have a pro5a5ilit o3 5ein' replicated directl proportional to their capacities. (. A /etlogo imlementation An implementation o3 the previous model can 5e do6nloaded 3romOhttpOHHin'or.u5u.esHmodelsHpata'oniaHsimple1.)i'ure 2 sho6s the #etlo'o initial 6indo6 6ith the di33erent parameters that can 5e selected and updated 5 the user. )i'ure " depicts #etlo'o 6orld vie6 o3 three sstem statesO at the 5e'innin', a3ter the 3irst time steps, 6hen households spread throu'h the virtual landscape, and at the time 6hen emer'ence o3 di33erent ethnic 'roups is o5served. . Preliminary results $ur model has the same assumptions as the classical A7elrodNs Dissemination o3 Culture model =1??O1.people are more li;el to interact 6ith others 6ho share man o3 their cultural attri5utes, and 2.these interactions tend to increase the num5er o3 cultural attri5utes the share =thus ma;in' them more li;el to interact a'ain.  Agent-Based Social Simulation in Archaeology   (.). *arcel+ et al.  -imulating !rehistoric thnicity.The case of !atagonian huntergatherers Ee also con3irm that the de'ree o3 cultural di33erentiation, and hence the emer'ence o3 more or less 8ethnic9 'roups seems to depend onO1.the num5er  / o3 cultural 3eatures that characteriFe each a'ent, 2.the num5er 8  o3 traits that each 3eature can ta;e on, ".the siFe  )  o3 the territor or, euivalentl, the num5er o3 interactin' a'ents. But the main result o3 our simpli3ied model is the emer'ence o3 ethnicit and the partitionin' o3 social net6or;s even in the case o3 a constant population. In other 6ords, cultural diversit not onl depends on the siFe o3  population or on the e7tension o3 territor, 5ut it is sociall mediated 5 man other social 3eed5ac; processes that a33ect the 6a homo'eneous 'roups are 5orn, reproduce and die. %thnic partitionin' 3ollo6s culture di33erentiation 6hich also 3ollo6s the intensit and re production o3 la5or cooperation. his is a comple7 social mechanism characteriFed 5 the dialectical relationship 5et6een the hi'her pao33s o3 cooperation, the local carrin' capacit, the level o3 technolo'ical development, and the ris; o3 increasin' social stress 6hen sur plus accumulates and 6ealth 5ecomes uneuall distri5uted.he simulated model sho6s ho6 8cultural pro7imit9  the threshold reuired 3or t6o households to re'ard themselves as 5elon'in' to the same 'roup in3luences the intensit o3 8ethnic9 ties. Ehen such a threshold is lo6 =e.'. < Q.2 the population evolves as one simple ethnic 'roup 5ecause cultural mutation and local di33usion processes are not stron' enou'h to 5rea; its ethnic identit. /o6ever, 6hen it is hi'her, local di33erentiation 3orces =mutation and di33usion can split the population into di33erent ethnic 'roups.$n the other hand, the ethnic 3ra'mentation in our model depends mainl on the importance o3 the increasin' returns o3 cooperation. In the case o3 poor economic revenues 3rom colla5orative la5our, there is no si'ni3icant 5ene3it in social interaction =see %. 1 and a household 6ill have the same opportunities livin' alone or 6ithin a 'roup. In such a scenario, 6e o5serve the re peated 3ormation o3 di33erentiated 'roups =hi'her ethno genesis . Ehen the economic returns o3 cooperation are hi'her, those households 6hich colla5orate 6ithin a 'roup 'et more surplus and there3ore more replications in the 3uture 'enerations. In doin' so, the population 3ra'ments into a smaller num5er o3 'roups, hence there is less ethnic di33erentiation. his e33ect saturates 3or hi'h enou'h values o3 cooperation returns, 6here 6e o5serve a minimum in the num5er o3 ethnic 'roups that de pends on the natural noise o3 the sstem =due to mutation and replacement processes. hose results are con'ruent 6ith 6hat 6e ;no6 o3 Pata'onian prehistor, 6here social 3usion tends to 5e less 3reuent than the 3ission o3 3ormer 'roups, 5asicall 5 the cost due to diminishing   mar'inal returns relative to the num5er o3 households cooperatin'. $nl i3 some individuals 6ithin the 'roup increase their o6n productivit and the a5solute volume o3 their production a5ove a critical threshold, the can invest such a surplus to increase coercion, and hence maintain ever increasin' levels o3 social ineualit. Eithout a dramatic chan'e in technolo' =i.e. a'riculture, pastoralism 6e thin; that this social chan'e is rare. Conclusions his preliminar and simpli3ied model o3 ethnicit 3ormation is 5ased on 11 parametersORnhouseholdsO num5er o3 households =it remains constant durin' the simulationRnei'h5orhoodradius 0  radius o3 the household<s nei'h5orhoodRculturalpro7imit 0  minimum relative num5er o3 cultural dimensions that t6o households should share in order to re'ard themselves as 5elon'in' to the same ethnic 'roupRculturaldimensions 0  num5er o3 cultural dimensionsRculturaltraitsO num5er o3 possi5le cultural traits 3or each dimensionRpcultdi33usion 0  pro5a5ilit that a household copies some cultural trait o3 the mode o3 her 'roupRpcultmutationO pro5a5ilit that a household mutates one o3 her cultural traits, 6hich is simultaneousl copied 5 all mem5ers o3 her 'roupRreturnstocooperation 0  parameter that modulates the increasin' returns to cooperation o3 the household<s production 3unction =see %.1Rsu5sistence 0  minimum surplus necessar to survive in a time periodRsurplusdepreciation 0  rate o3 surplus deca, or depreciationRli3ee7pectanc 0  mean o3 the Poisson distri5ution that descri5es 3amilies< ma7imum a'eshe most relevant aspect o3 this initial model is that ethnic 'roups have not 5een implemented as 3i7ed entities,  5ut the emer'e as a conseuence o3 cultural pro7imit relative to 'eo'raphical nei'h5orhood and the possi5ilities o3 oint colla5oration. Individual households do not have in3ormation a5out all ethnic 'roups in the population, the onl can di33erentiate other households in their nei'h5orhood and the are allo6ed to 5uild positive or ne'ative connections 6ith them in conseuence. %thnicit appears then as an emer'in' partition and as an evolvin' social net6or;, 6hose 3ormative and 8de3ormative9 dnamics is 6hat 6e 6ant to stud. odulated 5 the cultural pro7imit parameter, the e33ect o3 increasin' returns to cooperation is to 3acilitate the emer'ence o3 lar'er ethnic 'roups.  thnicity  appears to 5e a con CAA2! Fusion o" Cultures   /. 0ontreras, M. /arjas 1 /.(. Melero 2eds.  !roceedings of 0))45676 /usion of 0ultures seuence o3 territorial and social mo5ilit, mediated 5 the histor o3 previous interactions and the de'ree o3 cultural similarit, the pao33s derived 3rom cooperation =collective huntin', material e7chan'e, social reproduction and the costs 'enerated 5 internal social con3lict =social 3riction and 3ission. he model is 5ased on the assumption that social 5ehavior in 'roups is re'ulated 5 norms in such a 6a that interactions 5et6een individuals 6ho share 5elie3s a5out ho6 people should 5ehave ield hi'her pao33s than interactions amon' people 6ith discordant 5elie3s. #evertheless, the sharin' o3 social norms constitutes a historical result o3 the previous num5er o3 interactions, and this num5er is also a conseuence o3 the di33erent possi5ilities 'roups and individuals have o3 decidin' 3or strate'ies o3 collective la5or or individual su5sistence acuisition. In its turn, the num5er o3 individuals also depends on the num5er o3 couples the internal structure o3 the 'roup allo6s. Conseuentl, even the demo'raphic rhthm o3 the 'roup is sociall mediatedO cooperative 'roups should  5e more productive and also have more o33sprin' than noncooperative 'roups.  #evertheless, i3 it is not the 5elie3 that creates the 'roup,  5ut the 'roup that creates the 5elie3 in a shared communit o3 3eatures 6e need to 3ind an e7ternal 3actor 'ivin' 3eed5ac; to the dnamics o3 a''re'ation and se're'ation. Social In3luence can 5e a 'ood candidate 3or such a 3actor. Ano2le"gements Parts o3 this research has 5een 3unded 5 the Spanish inistr o3 Science and Innovation, throu'h Grant #o. /A>2?122M. Ee also ac;no6led'e the contri5ution 3rom the mem5ers o3 the thematic net6or; 8Dnamics and Collective Phenomena in the Social #et6or;s, also 3unded 5 the Spanish inistr o3 Science and Innovation under Grant #o. )IS2M11%H)IS. .A. Cuesta also ac;no6led'es the support 3rom the Spanish inistr o3 Science and Innovation throu'h proect $SAIC$, and 3rom Comunidad de adrid throu'h the  proect $D%KIC$C.). del Castillo ac;no6led'es support 3rom A%CI throru'h a predoctoral 'rant.-ilT also ac;no6led'es 3inancial support 3rom 'rant %C$2M(@ =Grupo ConsolidadoC 3rom the Spanish inistr o3 Science and Innovation and 3rom 'rant SG>2?M o3 the Generalitat de Cataluna... Gal!n and .I. Santos ac;no6led'e the support 3rom the Spanish inistr o3 Science and Innovation =I#2M@(@(C"2, 3rom the unta de Castilla  Ke+n =BU"(AM and 3rom Caa Bur'os =2?H1??H1 and 2?H1(MH1 3eferences AK%>$D, >., 1?, he Dissemination o3 CultureO A odel 6ith Kocal Conver'ence and Glo5al PolariFation. he ournal o3 Con3lict >esolution, -ol. (1, #o. 2, pp. 2"22@.BA#$#, ., 2. Ee5er on %thnic CommunitiesO A critiue,  =ations and =ationalism 73 =1, 2, 1?".BA>C%KL, .A., 2M. 0omputational >ntelligence in  )rchaeology  /enshe =#V, In3ormation Science >e3erencehe IGI Group.BA>C%KL, .A.: D%K CASIKK$, ).: A%KI, K.: $>%#$, %.: -ID%KA, B., 2?. Ehere Does the South Be'inJ Social -aria5ilit at the Southern op o3 the Eorld,  )rctic )nthropology , (@ =12,O 1.BA>/, )., 1?@? .  thnic :roups and *oundaries' The -ocial 9rgani?ation of 0ultural ifference : $sloO Universitets3orla'et.C$/%#, A.P. =ed. 2. -ignifying >dentities' )nthro pological !erspectives on *oundaries and 0ontested Values,  KondonO >outled'e. $#%S, S., 1??. The )rchaeology of thnicity' 0on structing >dentities in the !ast and !resent  .KondonO >outled'e.-I#C%#, ., 1?(. he Structure o3 %thnicit in  Auman 9rgani?ation 332B' 3CD3CE. E%B%>, ., eW1?22X 1?M.  conomy and -ociety  eds. Guenther >oth and Claus Eittich, trans.  phraim /ischof  , vol. 2 Ber;eleO Universit o3 Cali3ornia Press.  Agent-Based Social Simulation in Archaeology
Related Search
Similar documents
View more
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!