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  Association between sports participation, motor competence and weight status: A longitudinal study ARTICLE in JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE IN SPORT · DECEMBER 2015 4 PUBLICATIONS 0 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE
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  See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287817559 Association between sports participation,motor competence and weight status: Alongitudinal study   ARTICLE   in  JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE IN SPORT · DECEMBER 2015 Impact Factor: 3.19 · DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.512 READS 112 7 AUTHORS , INCLUDING:Rafael S HenriqueUniversidade de Pernambuco 18   PUBLICATIONS   9   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE David F StoddenUniversity of South Carolina 57   PUBLICATIONS   795   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE Carolina CamposUniversidade de Pernambuco 4   PUBLICATIONS   0   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE Maria Teresa CattuzzoUniversidade de Pernambuco 41   PUBLICATIONS   29   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate,letting you access and read them immediately.Available from: Rafael S HenriqueRetrieved on: 13 January 2016  Pleasecitethisarticleinpressas:HenriqueRS,etal.Associationbetweensportsparticipation,motorcompetenceandweightstatus:Alongitudinalstudy.  J    SciMed   Sport  (2015),http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.512 ARTICLE IN PRESS G Model  JSAMS-1264;No.ofPages5 Journalof    ScienceandMedicineinSportxxx(2015)xxx–xxx ContentslistsavailableatScienceDirect  Journal   of    Science   and   Medicine   in   Sport  journalhomepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/jsams Original   research Association   between   sports   participation,   motor   competence   andweight   status:   A   longitudinal   study Rafael   S.   Henrique a , ∗ ,Alessandro   H.N.   Ré b ,David   F.   Stodden c ,    Job   Fransen d ,Carolina   M.C.   Campos a ,   Daniel   R.   Queiroz a ,Maria   T.   Cattuzzo a a HigherSchoolofPhysicalEducation,UniversityofPernambuco,Brazil b SchoolofArts,SciencesandHumanities—EACH/USP,UniversityofSãoPaulo,Brazil c DepartmentofPhysicalEducationandAthleticTraining,BlattPhysicalEducationCenter,UniversityofSouthCarolina,USA d ExerciseandSportsSciences,FacultyofScienceandInformationTechnology,Universityof    Newcastle,Australia a   r   t   i   c   l   e   i   nf   o  Articlehistory: Received7May   2015Receivedinrevisedform12December2015Accepted19December2015Availableonlinexxx Keywords: SportsMotorskillsBodymassindexChild a   b   s   t   ra   ct Objectives:   The   aim   of    this   studywas   toinvestigate   if    baselinemotor   competence,   weight   statusandsportsparticipationinearly   childhood   predictsportsparticipation   two   years   later. Design:   longitudinal   study. Methods: In   2010,   motor   competence(objectcontrolandlocomotorskills),   weight   status   and   sports   par-ticipation   were   assessed   in   292children   betweenthree   and   fiveyears-of-age.   In   2012,sportsparticipationwasre-evaluatedin206   of    the   srcinal292   children.   Logisticregression   was   implemented   to   examine   if initial   sportsparticipation,   motor   competence   and   weightstatus   would   predict   sportsparticipation   twoyears   later. Results: Inthe   final   model,sports   participation   in2010(OR    =   9.68,   CI:   3.46   to27.13)and   locomotor   skills(OR    =1.21,   CI:1.01   to   1.46)   significantly   predicted   sportsparticipation   after   two   years. Conclusions:   These   results   suggest   that   initialsportsparticipationand   moreadvanced   locomotorskills   inpreschool   years   may   be   importanttopromotecontinued   participation   insportsacrosschildhood.©   2015   Sports   Medicine   Australia.   PublishedbyElsevierLtd.   Allrights   reserved. 1.Introduction Physicalactivity(PA)inchildhoodplaysacrucialrolein   thephysicalandpsychologicalhealthof    childrenandthroughoutthelifespan.Duringchildhood,sportsparticipation(SP)issuggestedto   beaworthwhilestrategytopromotePA 1 andmay   helpalleviatenegativeobesityandphysicalinactivitytrends. 2,3 Thedevelopmentofmotorcompetence(MC),specificallyproficiencyinfundamen-talmotorskills(e.g.,jumping,throwing,kicking,runningstriking),isimportantforsuccessfulparticipationin   manysports.HigherlevelsofMCaugmentchildren’ssuccessin   sportsandpromotecontinuedparticipation. 4 SeveralstudiesindicatethatSPis   signifi-cantlyassociatedwithincreasedPA, 1 MC, 5,6 generalfitnesslevels 7 andisinverselyassociatedwithbodyfat. 3 However,itis   notyetfullyunderstoodhowSPin   youthcouldbeoptimizedtofacilitatecontinuedparticipationandincreasedPA.Cross-sectionalstudies 6,8 haveshownthat   childrenwhoreg-ularlyparticipatein   sportsdemonstratehigherMCthanchildren ∗ Correspondingauthor. E-mailaddress: rdshenrique@hotmail.com(R.S.Henrique). whodo   notregularlyparticipateinsports.However,onlytwostud-ieshaveinvestigatedlongitudinalassociationsbetweenMC   andSP, 7,9 withnostudiesaddressingpreschool-agedchildren.Van-dorpeetal. 9 showedthatbothMC   andSPin6–8year-oldchildrenpositivelypredictedtheSPaftertwoyears.Inaddition,Fransenetal. 7 showedthat6–10year-oldchildrenwiththehighestlevelof    MChadspentmoretimeinclub-levelSPandhadbetterphys-icalfitnessthanchildrenwithlowerMC.   Althoughthesestudieshaveassessedchildrenfrommiddlechildhood,earlychildhood(i.e.,2–5yrs)isparticularlycriticaltimeforthedevelopmentof    healthybehaviors 10 andthisis   anoptimaltimetopromotetheacquisitionof    a   widerangeof    motorskills. 11,12 Asyoungchildrengenerallydeveloplocomotorskillsearlierthanobjectcontrolskills 13 ,   thedevelopmentoflocomotorskillsmaybe   moreinfluentialforSPandforpromotinghealthybehaviorsinearlychildhood. 14 However,currentliteraturedoesnotprovideaclearanswer.SomestudieshaveshownthatlocomotorskillsaremorestronglyassociatedwithPAthanobjectcontrolskillsinchildhood, 14,15 whileothersstudieshaveshownthatobjectcon-trolskillsin   childhood,butnotlocomotorskills,predictPA   andfitnessin   adolescence. 16–18 Asweightstatus(WS)isinverselyasso-ciatedwithMC   acrosschildhood,withthestrengthof    association http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.5121440-2440/©2015SportsMedicineAustralia.Publishedby   ElsevierLtd.   Allrightsreserved.  Pleasecitethisarticleinpressas:HenriqueRS,etal.Associationbetweensportsparticipation,motorcompetenceandweightstatus:Alongitudinalstudy.  J    SciMed   Sport  (2015),http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.512 ARTICLE IN PRESS G Model  JSAMS-1264;No.ofPages52   R.S.Henriqueetal./Journalof    ScienceandMedicineinSportxxx(2015)xxx–xxx increasingacrosstime, 19 WS   alsomay   haveaninfluenceonSPacrossearlychildhoodintomiddlechildhood.Thus,demonstrat-inglowMCandbeingoverweight/obesemay   decreaseadherencetoSP.Basedonresultsofpreviousliterature,thepotentialimpactofdevelopingMConSPmay   beimportantforpromotinglong-termhealth-enhancingPAacrosschildhood.However,associationsbetweendifferentcategoriesof    MCandSP,   specificallyinearlychildhood,havenot   beeninvestigated.Asitis   becomingincreas-inglyclearthatthedevelopmentof    health-enhancingPAbehaviorhabits(e.g.,SP)areestablishedinearlychildhood,itisimportanttounderstandthemechanismsthatpromotethesehealthybehaviors.Theaimofthisstudywastoinvestigateifbaselinemotorcom-petence,weightstatusandsportsparticipationinearlychildhoodpredictsportsparticipationtwoyearslater. 2.Methods In2010,292children(158boys)agedbetweenthreeandfiveyearswereassessedforMC,   weightstatusandSP.In2012,206children(115boys)fromthebaselinegroupof    participants(70.55%, n =206/292)wereidentifiedandre-evaluatedforSP.ChildrenwererecruitedfromtheObservationalLongitudinalStudyonHealthandWelfareof    PreschoolChildren( EstudoLon- gitudinaldeObservac¸ãodaSaúdeeBem-estardaCrianc¸aemIdadePré-escolar  , ELOS-Pré ),whichevaluateddifferentaspectsofhealthinpreschoolerssuchasPA,sedentarybehaviorandMC.   Inthislongitudinalstudy,28schoolsproportionallydistributedinsixpoliticaladministrativeregionsof    northeasternBrazilwereran-domlyselected.Inthesamplingprocess,allregularlyenrolledchildrenineachselectedschoolwereinvitedto   participateinthestudy.AllstudyprotocolswereapprovedbythelocalEthicsCommitteeandwritteninformedconsentwasobtainedfromeachchild’sparentsorguardianspriortocollectionof    data.AllchildrenwereassessedbetweenAugustandDecemberin   2010forSP,MCandWS,   andrevaluatedatsameperiodin   2012forSP.InformationaboutSPwasobtainedthrougha   questionnairedevelopedbyresearchersof    thestudyandansweredbyparents.Inthisquestionnaire,theparentsorguardiansansweredwhetherchildrendidordidnotparticipateinorganizedphysicalactivities(e.g.,sports,danceandmartialarts).Organizedphysicalactivitieswereactivitiesthatinvolvedregularclasses,training,or   compe-tition;werestructuredorformal,andhadacoach,instructor,orteacher. 20 Thechildwasincludedin   theSPgroupif    theypartici-patedinorganizedphysicalactivitiesforatleast1hperweekaspartofasupervisedactivity.MotorcompetencewasassessedwiththeTestof    GrossMotorDevelopment—SecondEdition(TGMD-2). 21 TheTGMD-2isa   validandreliabletestforBrazilianchildrenandevaluatestheperfor-manceofsixlocomotorandsixobjectcontrolskills. 21 Eachskillincludes3–5performancecriteriathatarescoredaspresent(1point)orabsent(0point)usingprocess-orientedchecklists.Thescoreobtainedintwoattemptsateachskillwassummedtogivea   rawscoreofthelocomotion(0–48points)andobjectcontrol(0–48points)subscales.Thescoresofeachsubscalewerethentransformedintostandardscoreforanalysis.Alltrialsforeveryskillwereassessedindependentlybytwotrainedraters.Afterthat,allraterdisagreementswerereassessedbybothraterstogethertodefinethefinalvalue(0or   1).Thus,therewas   afinalagree-mentof100%betweenraters.Theinitialinter-rateragreement 22 wasstrongforboththelocomotorskills(ICC=   .93,95%CI.90to.96)andfortheobjectcontrolskills(ICC=   .87,95%CI.81to.92).Theintra-rateragreementforlocomotorskills(ICC=   .97,95%CI.95to.98)andobjectcontrolskills(ICC=.95,95%CI.92to   .97)was   alsostrong.Bodymassindex(BMI)was   calculatedbydividingbodymass(kg)bystaturesquared(m 2 ).Staturewasmeasuredwithaportablestadiometer/scaletothenearest.1   cm.   Bodymasswas   measuredwitha   portablescaletothenearest.1kg.Childrenwereclassifiedasnormalweight,overweightandobeseaccordingto   genderandage-specificBMIcutoffvaluesproposedbytheInternationalObesityTaskForce(IOTF). 23 Subsequently,overweightandobesesubjectsweregroupedintoan‘unhealthyweight’cohort.Participant’sdescriptiveinformationis   providedin   Table1.Logisticregressionwasconductedin   orderto   investigateifbase-linemotorcompetence,weightstatusandsportsparticipationinearlychildhoodwouldpredictsportsparticipationtwoyearslater.TheunadjustedanalysisevaluatedtheassociationbetweeneachpredictorfrombaselinewithSPaftertwo   yearsastheoutcomevariable.Usinga   backwardmethod,allvariableswereconsideredin   theadjustedanalysisandthosethathad  p <.20or   contributedtothemodelfit   indexwereretainedfortheregressionmodels(1,2and3). 24 Age,   genderandsocioeconomicstatus(SES)wereusedasadjustment.TheSESinformationwas   obtainedfromthequestion-naireof    thestudywiththeminimumwagesetat300dollarspermonth.Accordingly,participantsweregroupedasfollows:lowSES(familyincomeis   <2 ×   minimumwage),medium(familyincomebetween2and4 × minimumwage)andhigh(familyincome>4 × minimumwage).Modelfit   wasassessedusingtheHosmerandLemeshowtest.Thegoodness-of-fittestwasconsideredsatisfac-torywhentheHosmerandLemeshowtestwasgreaterthan.70(range:.00–1.00). 24 TheCoxandSnell R 2 andNagelkerke R 2 werealsousedasanindicatorofmodelappropriateness.Themagni-tudesof    theassociationswereexpressedasOddsRatios(OR)andtheirrespectiveconfidenceintervals(95%CI).Allanalyseswereper-formedusingSTATA11.0andSPSS17.0withsignificancelevelforvariablesin   thefinalmodelsetat  p   <   .05. 3.Results Descriptivestatisticsforage,stature,bodymass,BMI   andMCareshownin   Table1.   Ofthe206childrenwho   haddatafrombothbaselineandaftertwo   years,24children(11.65%)in   baselineand52childrenaftertwoyears(25.24%)participatedin   sports.Seventeenchildrenamongthosewho   participatedinsportsinbaselinestillparticipatedin   sportsin2012(70.83%).Intotal,15.05%wereoverweightand9.71%wereobese,total-izing24.76%of    childrenclassifiedin   theunhealthyweightcohort.RegardingSES,58childrenwereclassifiedaslow,109asmedium,and39ashighincome.Table2showstheresultsfromunadjustedandadjustedana-lyzes(Models1,2and3).LogisticregressionresultsindicatedobjectcontrolskillswerenotassociatedwithSPaftertwo   yearsinboththeunadjustedandadjustedmodel(Model1).Therefore,objectcontrolskillswereexcludedfromfurtheranalyses. 24 InModel1,SPatbaselineandlocomotorskillsweresignificantpredictors,butmodelfit   was   not   strong(  2 =   5.68;  p =   .68).InModel2,   thewith-drawalofWS   didnotaffectthesignificanceof    thepredictorsandthefit   of    thismodelwas   notbetterthanModel1(  2 =6.05;  p =.53).Duringthemodeling,WS   wasregardedaspredictorandallpos-sibleadjustmentvariablesweretested.Model3(withoutgenderadjustmentvariable)achieveda   strongfit 24 (  2 =.48;  p   =   1.00)andwaschosenasthebestadjustedmodelbasedonthedata.Asgen-derwas   nota   significantpredictorin   themodel,theexclusionof genderdidnot   affecttheimpactof    thevariablesandsignificantlyimprovedmodelfit.Thus,SPandlocomotorskillsatbaselinewereassociatedwithSPaftertwoyears(Table2,   Model3).Participationinsportsatbaselinewas   thestrongestpredictorof    SPaftertwoyears(OR=9.68).In   addition,eachone-pointincreaseinlocomotorskillsrepresentedanincreaseofapproximately21%probabilityof   Pleasecitethisarticleinpressas:HenriqueRS,etal.Associationbetweensportsparticipation,motorcompetenceandweightstatus:Alongitudinalstudy.  J    SciMed   Sport  (2015),http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.512 ARTICLE IN PRESS G Model  JSAMS-1264;No.ofPages5 R.S.   Henriqueetal./JournalofScienceand   MedicineinSportxxx   (2015)xxx–xxx 3  Table1 Descriptivestatistics(Mean ± SD)of    age,stature,bodymass,BMIandmotorcompetenceforthedropoutandtestsample.VariablesTestsampleDropoutsampleBoys( n   =   115)Girls( n =91) F  Total( n =   206)   Boys( n =   42)Girls( n =   44) F  Total( n =86) F    (total)Age2010(months)57.39 ± 10.2158.56 ± 8.06.8057.91 ± 9.3357.32 ± 11.0055.19 ± 8.84.9856.23 ± 9.951.89Age   2012(months)81.78 ± 10.2382.92 ± 8.08.7682.29 ± 9.33Stature(m)   1.09 ± .751.09 ± .72.551.09 ± .73   1.09 ± .811.08 ± .82.011.08 ± .81.01Body   mass(kg) 19.39 ± 4.96 19.56 ± 4.77 .0119.47 ± 4.8718.35 ± 3.1319.79 ± 4.203.2318.94 ± 3.78.81BMI   (kg/m 2 )16.01 ± 2.4216.24 ± 2.65.4616.11 ± 2.5216.27 ± 1.5516.82 ± 2.611.4016.07 ± 2.29.02Locomotorskills(SS)10.16 ± 2.099.96 ± 1.762.3610.07 ± 1.9510.39 ± 2.1710.58 ± 2.01.1810.49 ± 2.082.71Object   controlskills(SS)9.43 ± 2.358.96 ± 2.062.269.34 ± 2.259.76 ± 1.8810.53 ± 2.003.389.75 ± 1.972.16 Note ,BMI,bodymassindex;SS,standardscore.  Table2 Logisticregressionresultsfortheassociationbetweensportsparticipation,motorcompetence,weightstatusatbaselineandsportsparticipationtwoyearslater(Models1,2   and3).VariablesUnadjustedModel1 * Model2 ** Model3 *** ORLCIHCI  p ORLCIHCI  p ORLCIHCI  p ORLCIHCI  p SPatbaselineNo1.00 <.011.00<.011.00<.01 1.00<.01 Yes   10.203.9326.499.683.4527.119.643.4526.90 9.683.4627.13 Locomotorskills1.181.011.39.041.221.011.47.031.191.011.44.04 1.211.011.46.03 Object   controlskills1.04.90   1.20.59ExcludedExcludedExcludedWeightstatus ExcludedUnhealthyweight1.00.251.00.281.00.28Normal   weight.66.331.33.65.301.42.65.291.42 Note ,LCI,lowerconfidenceinterval;OR,oddsratio;SP,   sportsparticipation;UCI,upperconfidenceinterval. * Adjustedforage,genderandsocioeconomicstatus(  2 =5.68;  p =   .68). ** Adjustedforage,genderandsocioeconomicstatus(  2 =6.05;  p   =   .53) *** Adjustedforageandsocioeconomicstatus(  2 =   .48;  p =1.00). participatinginsportsafter   twoyears.Weightstatuswasnota   sig-nificantpredictorof    SP,   butitwasimportantforthemodelfit.ThevariablesoftheModel3explainedbetween14.5%(CoxandSnell R 2 )and21.4%(Nagelkerke R 2 )ofthevarianceinSPaftertwoyears. 4.Discussion Theaimofthisstudywasto   investigateifbaselinemotorcom-petence,weightstatusandsportsparticipationin   earlychildhoodpredictsportsparticipationtwoyearslater.Overall,previousSPwasthestrongestfactorforpredictingfutureSPin   thissample.Thepresentstudyalsoseemstopartiallyconfirmtheinfluenceof    MConcontinuedSPthroughlocomotorskilldevelopment.Preschool-erswhoinitiallyparticipatedin   sportsanddemonstratedmoreadvancedlocomotorskillsandweremorelikelyto   participateinsportstwoyearslater.AsthedevelopmentofMC   is   a   cumulativeandrelativelyper-manentphenomenon(incontrasttodietaryhabitsorPA   level),itseffectsonSP,andassociatedPA   may   bepersistentacrosschild-hoodandthroughoutlifespan.Thepromotionof    context-specificphysicalactivities(e.g.,SP)in   earlychildhoodalsoissuggestedtoinitiallypromotethedevelopmentof    MC. 4,25 Thus,participationinsportsearlyinchildhoodalsomay   becriticaltoestablishbothMCandPAhabits.Overall,a   reciprocalmechanismof    interaction 26 issuggestedtopromoteasustainedpositivespiralof    engagementinPA,whichincludesSPactivities. 4,25 Thefactthata   positiveassociationbetweenMCatbaselineandSPinmiddlechildhoodisonlyapparentforlocomotionskillsmay   berelatedtoacontrolhierarchyoffundamentalmotorskilldevelopment. 13 Locomotorskillsare   thefirstsubsetof    MC   tobeassociatedwithSPasitinvolvesindependentuprightlocomotion.Thenextstepin   thehierarchyisthedevelopmentof    objectcontrolskills,whicharealsogenerallyassociatedwiththemaintenanceof posture. 13 Becausemorecomplexperceptual-motoradjustmentsareneededforcontrolledandpreciseobjectmanipulationandpro- jection,itisclearthatprolongedexposuretomotorexperiencesinvolvingobjectcontrolskillsmay   beneededtoachievemasteryinthisarea. 13 Alignedwithresultsofpreviousstudieswitholderchildren, 5–7 thepresentlongitudinaldataalsofoundanassociationbetweenSPandMC,   thereforebroadeningthefindingstoyoungerchil-dren.Suchresultsareparticularlyimportantconsideringthatearlychildhoodinanoptimaltimeframefor   experiencinganddevel-opingmotoractions. 12 Inearlychildhooditis   hypothesizedthatthenervoussystemmightbemoresensitivetolearningprocessesthatproducepermanentanddefinitivechangesincertainneuralstructures. 11 Moreover,earlychildhoodisconsideredcriticalforthedevelopmentofhealth-relatedbehaviorsthattendtoperpetu-atethemselvesin   laterstagesof    life. 10 Anotherdifferencebetweenthepreviouslymentionedstud-iesandthecurrentstudyontheassociationbetweenMCandSPmaybeattributedtotheassessmentof    MC   thatwasused.Van-dorpeetal. 9 andFransenetal. 7 evaluatedgrossmotorcoordinationviaaproduct-orientedassessment(KörperkoordinationstestfürKinder–KTK).Oneofthemaindifficultiesof    thistypeof    measureisthatskilloutcomesdo   notnecessarilyhighlightthedevelopmen-talprocess(i.e.,   qualitativemovementpatterndevelopment)thatresultsin   theachievedscore.Furthermore,somescoresoftheKTKtestmay   benegativelyinfluencedbyexcessbodymassbecausetheKTKsubtestsrequirethesupportand/ortransportofbodymass. 27 Inthepresentstudy,MC   was   evaluatedthrougha   process-orientedapproach,whichcanbeparticularlyimportantin   youngeragestomeasureMC. 12 Amongthe24preschoolerswhoparticipatedinsportsatbase-line,17of    them(71%)continuedtoparticipateaftertwoyears.Onepossibleexplanationforthepersistencein   SPmaybethesynergisticrelationshipbetweenMCandengagementin   physicalactivitiesandsports. 4,25 ChildrenwithadvancedMCmay   bemore  Pleasecitethisarticleinpressas:HenriqueRS,etal.Associationbetweensportsparticipation,motorcompetenceandweightstatus:Alongitudinalstudy.  J    SciMed   Sport  (2015),http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.512 ARTICLE IN PRESS G Model  JSAMS-1264;No.ofPages54   R.S.Henriqueetal./Journalof    ScienceandMedicineinSportxxx(2015)xxx–xxx successfulinstructuredactivitiesand,asa   result,havea   morepositiveexperienceandhavemorefunthanindividualswhoseMClevelmay   limittheirparticipationorengagement.Theoreti-cally,childrenwhohavetheopportunityto   participatein   organizedsportsataveryyoungagealsohavemoreopportunitiesto   practiceanddeveloptheirMC.   Inthepresentstudy,childrenwithmoreadvancedlocomotorskillsatbaselinewere21%morelikelytopar-ticipateinsportstwoyearslater,suggestingthatMC   isakeyfactorforcontinuedengagementinsports.However,parentalinfluencesandotherfamily-relatedfactorssuchascost,distancetotravelandtimecommitmentscaninflu-enceparents’decisionsabouttheirchild’sparticipationinsports.Thechoiceofparentstoallowtheirchildrentoparticipateinstruc-turedactivitiesisonefactorthatwasnotaccountedforinthisstudy.Althoughthepresentstudydidnotassesstheparentalinflu-enceandthechildren’sperceptionsofMC,   childrenwho   consideredthemselvesascompetentmay   bemorelikelytoparticipatein   phys-icalandsportsactivitiesandthereforecontinuetobe   physicallyactiveinsportsandduringtheirleisuretime.Weiss 28 suggeststhemainreasonsfortheinvolvementinphysicalactivitiesandsportsin   childrenandadolescentsare:(a)thedevelopmentanddemon-strationofphysicalcompetence(e.g.,learnandimproveskills),(b)achievingacceptanceandsocialsupport(e.g.beingwithandmakingfriends;beingreinforcedbyparentsandcoaches)and(c)experiencingenjoyment(e.g.,havingfunandchallengingoneself).Itisalsoreasonabletoassumethatwhenparticipatinginaparticu-larsport,childrenwithhigherlevels   of    MC   may   feelmoremotivatedtosustaintheirparticipation. 28 Hence,theyhavea   higherchanceofmovementsuccesswhichmightresultinfurtherongoingpartic-ipationasdescribedin   thepositivecycleof    engagementinPA. 24 Inaddition,childrenwhoare   giventheopportunitytoparticipateinorganizedsportsata   veryyoungagealsohavemoreopportunitiestopracticeanddeveloptheirMC.Rationaleforthelackof    anassociationof    WS   withbothMCandSPremainsuncertain,butonepossibleexplanationmay   berelatedtotheageof    theparticipants.ArecentsystematicreviewshowedaweakinverserelationshipbetweenMC   andWSin   earlychildhood, 19 butthestrengthof    associationsbetweenMCandWSincreasesacrosschildhoodandadolescence. 19,25 Soitmay   bethatWS,   especiallyin   youngerchildren,haslessinfluenceonSP,butbecomesincreasinglyimportantlaterinthedevelopmentalprocess. 19,25 WhilethisisthefirststudytolongitudinallyinvestigatetheinfluenceofSP,MC   andWSatpreschoolageonSPin   middlechild-hood,somelimitationsshouldbeconsidered.Thelackof    statisticalpowermighthaveinfluencednon-significantassociations,partic-ularlyforWS.   Moreover,MC   wasnotmeasuredduringthefollowup,whichwouldprovideimportantinformationonthecontin-ueddevelopmentofMC   acrosstime.Anotherlimitationwasthedropoutratebetweenmeasurements.Despitethesampleloss,sub- jectswholeftthestudydidnotdifferfromincludedparticipants(  p >.05)intheirbaselineassessment(Table1).Thiswouldsuggestselectionbiaswasnotafactorinthefinalsample.WithregardtotheinfluenceoftheenvironmentandparentsonSP,itmustberec-ognizedthatthedecisionsor   beliefsofparentscaninfluenceSPinyoungchildren.Also,thecontentof    thelessons,aswellaslearningvariables(e.g.,feedback,distributionof    practiceetc.)areimportantaspectsofSPthatneedto   beaddressedinfuturestudiesto   betterunderstandthepotentialreciprocalinfluenceof    SPandMConeachother.FuturestudiesshouldalsoinvestigatetheassociationbetweenMC   andthetypeofsportpracticedbecauserelationshipsbetweenSPandMC   may   bedifferentdependingonthenatureof thesport. 29,30 Inaddition,understandingthepotentialdiffer-entialeffectsof    MC   specificity,aslocomotor,objectcontrolandbalanceskillsmay   bedifferentlyassociatedwithSPacrosschildhood. 15–18,29 Suchinformationmightenhanceourunder-standingaboutsustainedSPacrosschildhood. 5.Conclusion Theresultsofthisstudyindicatethat   earlyparticipationin   sportandmoreadvancedlocomotorskillsin   earlychildhoodareimpor-tantto   promotefutureSP.OurresultsalsopartiallysupportthetheoreticalmodelproposedbyStoddenetal. 25 suggestingthatearlyinvolvementinphysicalactivitiessuchasSPandhigherMCpromoteapositivespiralof    engagementin   physicalactivities.Aslocomotorskillsdevelopearlierthanobjectcontrolskills,theymaybeimportantrequisitesof    futureSPacrosschildhood.Itisrecom-mendedthatallchildren,especiallythosewithdelayedlocomotorskills,shouldbeprovideddevelopmentallyappropriateopportuni-tiestopromotetheacquisitionoffundamentalmotorskillsearlyin   childhood.Assuch,continuedengagementinSPmightprovideanoptimalenvironmentforcontinueddevelopmentof    MCthatprovidesabasisforlifetimeengagementinavarietyof    health-enhancingPA   andsportsinthefuture. Practicalimplications •  Sportsparticipationin   earlychildhoodsignificantlyenhancestheprobabilityforcontinuedparticipationinsportsacrosschildhood. •  Advancedlocomotorskillsin   earlychildhoodmaybeimportantforsustainedSP. •  Providingopportunitiesforparticipationin   sportsandthedevel-opmentof    motorskillscanstimulateSPacrosschildhood,whichmay   promotepositiveandsustainabletrajectoriesof    health-enhancingbehaviors. •  Thesefindingsproviderationaleforphysicaleducationteachersandyouthsportcoachestoimprovecurriculaforchildren’sphys-icaleducation.  Acknowledgments Thisresearchwassupportedbya   mastersscholarshipgrantfromtheCoordinationfortheImprovementof    HigherEduca-tionPersonnel/ResearchNationalCouncil,CAPES/CNPq,   Brazil(forRafaeldosSantosHenrique),post-doctorategrantScienceWithoutBordersProgram,CAPES/CNPq,Brazil(forMariaTeresaCattuzzo,Process:BEX2568/13)andaresearchgrantfromSaoPauloResearchFoundation,FAPESP,Brazil(forAlessandroHervaldoNico-laiRé,Process:12506202).We   acknowledgetheresearchersof theObservationalLongitudinalStudyonHealthandWelfareof PreschoolChildrenfortheireffort.We   acknowledgechildrenandparentsfortheirparticipationinthestudy,andtotheschoolsfortheircooperation. References 1.WickelEE,EisenmannJC.Contributionofyouthsportto   totaldailyphysi-calactivityamong6-to   12-yr-oldboys. MedSci   SportsExerc  2007;39(9):1493–1500.2.MalinaRM.   Childrenandadolescentsinthesportculture:theoverwhelmingmajorityto   theselectfew.  JExercSci   Fit  2009;7(2):1–10.3.BasterfieldL,ReillyJK,PearceMSetal.Longitudinalassociationsbetweensportsparticipation,bodycompositionandphysicalactivityfromchildhoodto   adoles-cence.  J    SciMedSport  2014;18(2):178–182.4.RobinsonLE,StoddenDF,BarnettLMet   al.Motorcompetenceanditseffecton   positivedevelopmentaltrajectoriesof    health. SportsMed   2015,http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0351-6.5.D’HondtE,DeforcheB,GentierIetal.Alongitudinalanalysisof    grossmotorcoordinationinoverweightandobesechildrenversusnormal-weightpeers. Int  JObes 2013;37(1):61–67.6.QueirozDR,Ré   AHN,HenriqueRSetal.Participationinsportspracticeandmotorcompetenceinpreschoolers. Motriz  2014;20(1):26–32.
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