(2013) No soy de aquí, no soy de allá: immigrant rappers’ discursive expressions of identity, alienation and place in the US context. Paper presented at the International Society for Language Studies (ISLS). June 12-15. San Juan, Puerto Rico

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  (2013) No soy de aquí, no soy de allá: immigrant rappers’ discursive expressions of identity, alienation and place in the US context. Paper presented at the International Society for Language Studies (ISLS). June 12-15. San Juan, Puerto Rico.
  3/7/14 1 No soy de aquí, no soy de allá : immigrant rappers’ discursive expressions of identity, alienation and place in the US context Cecelia Cutler Cecelia.Cutler@lehman.cuny.edu City University of New York, Lehman College The International Society for Language Studies San Juan, Puerto Rico June 13-15, 2013.   questions •   What can person deixis in rap lyrics reveal about the structural relationship and world view of Chicanos (and rappers like Jae-P) to Anglo-Americans in the US? •   What do these deictic patterns tell us about the possibilities for social dialog and social change? Framework •   Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough 1995; Reisigl & Wodak 2000; Van Dijk 2006, 2009, 2011) •   a type of discourse analytical research that primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality are enacted, reproduced, and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context. Naming and Attributing (1) How are persons named and referred to linguistically? (2) What traits, characteristics, qualities and features are attributed to them?  –   From what perspective or point of view are these namings, attributions and arguments expressed?  –    Are the respective discriminating utterances articulated overtly, are they even intensified or are they mitigated? (3) By means of what arguments and argumentation schemes do specific persons or social groups try to  justify and legitimize the exclusion, discrimination, suppression and exploitation of others? (adapted from Wodak 2011)  3/7/14 2 The deictic field •   ‘Pronouns are perhaps the best known grammatical category of the expression and manipulation of social relations, status and power, and hence of underlying ideologies’ (Van Dijk, 1998: 203) Chicano rap groups Group   Origins   Language of choice in music   Language of Website   Kinto Sol (Javier "DJ Payback" Garcia, Manuel "Skribe" Garcia, and Eduardo "El Chivo" Garcia)   immigrated from Iramuca to Milwaukee/Chicago   Spanish   Spanish (some English)   http://www.kintosol.com/    Akwid (Sergio Gomez and Francisco Gomez)   immigrated from Jiquilpan, Michoacán > S.Central LA   Spanish; some English   Spanish   http://akwid.com/   Jae-P (Juan Pablo Huerta)   Born 1984 South Central LA of parents from southern Mexico   Mostly Spanish with a few English words; some English tracks.   Spanish http://www.jae-p.com/site/cms.php?id_cms=8   Kemo the Blaxican   Born in Los Angeles; of Mexican and African- American descent   Code-switching (Inter and intra-sententially)   English (with Bio available in Spanish)   http://www.kemotheblaxican.com/     Lyrical Themes •   Feelings of alienation and rejection. •   Chicanos as an up-and-coming social force. •   Pride in Mexican/Indigenous identities (“raza” and “brown pride”, but also •   Hybridized identities; re-presentations of ways to be Chicano •   Problems facing Chicanos, ie. alcoholic, abusive fathers; poverty, police harassment… Person Deixis Corpus Data type   Description   Rap song lyrics   “Ni de aquí, ni de allá” (2003) (646,348 views on YouTube) “Vecino” (2006) (129,113 on YouTube) Word Count  1,242 Pronoun Count 243 I 148 (61%) YOU 63 (26%) WE 17 (7%) THEY 12 (5%)  3/7/14 3 “Vecino” (2006) Spanish pronoun chart Pro-drop •    A pro-drop language  (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are in some sense pragmatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate). Example: ¡ ___ Aprendí   a hablar inglés. ( I  )  learned to speak English. Distribution of person deixis in corpus   Subject Direct Object Indirect object Possessive Adjective Possessive Pronoun Total First Singular Yo me mi mio/a(s) mi 50% 4% 1% 0% 5% 61% (N=148) First Plural Nosotros nos nos nuestro/a(s) nuestro/a(s) 6% 0 0% 0% 1% 7% (N=17) Second Singular Tu te te/ti* tu(s) tuyo 10% 8% 1% 5% 0% 24% (N=58) Second Plural Ustedes les les su(s) suyo/a(s) 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% (N=5) Third Singular El/Ella lo/la le su(s) suyo/a(s) 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% (N=3) Third Plural Ella/o(s) los/las les su(s) suyo/a(s) 2% 1% 0% 1% 0 5% (N=12) * Object of preposition  3/7/14 4 First person sg. “I”-deixis ( Yo/me/mi/mio(s) ) •   Majority of pronouns are first person sg. (61%, N=148) •   Narrative function  –   First person singular: Anchors Jae-P as the deictic center, and constructs his identity as a Chicano rapper, and an illegal immigrant, while framing himself and other Chicanos and Mexicans in a positive light.  Adapted from Maleej (2012) I-Deixis Examples  Yo  no tuve opinion Me  trajeron muy morrillo Cuando dijo mi  apa, vamos cruzando el rio I had no say in it They brought me as a kid When my dad said, let’s cross the river WE-deixis ( Nosotros/nos/nuestro-a ( s )) 1.Intimate WE : constructs Jae-P’s personal background; used for recounting “autobiographical” events like crossing the Rio Grande; leaving’s one’s children behind in Mexico to find work in the US. 2.Inclusive WE : framing (Goffman 1974) the Chicano community as entitled to reclaim their lands, as victims of poverty and political oppression in Mexico, and willing workers who are only taking advantage of the availability of work in the US. 3.All Inclusive WE : referent shifts to Jae-P, the Chicano community and the “gringo” community; signals desire for cooperation to solve misunderstandings and move the country forward together. Intimate WE   Me hacen mucha falta Extraño sus abrazos  Aprieto el teléfono cuando platicamos   I miss them very much (my children), I miss their hugs, I squeeze the phone when we talk  3/7/14 5 Inclusive WE   Pero raza , yo les pido Que aprendan bien inglés Porque esta tierra sera nuestra  otra vez But my people, I ask you to learn English well Because this land will be ours once again All Inclusive WE    Aprende el español y yo el inglés, pa' podernos  entender mucho mejór Sacaremos  adelante esta grande nación You learn Spanish and I English so we can understand one another better We’ll  push this great country ahead  YOU -deixis (tu, te, ti, tu(s)) •   Constructs various addressees who exist at different levels of distance from the deictic center/narrator  –    YOU (Ingroup, close to deictic center) •   Fans •   Unspecified addressees •   Fellow Chicanos •   Personified Mexico  –    YOU ( Outgroup, farther out from deictic center) •    Anglo-Americans  YOU (Ingroup)   Si no te   aprovechas  de esta tierra en lo que ofrece Te   vas  a regresar como un perro que no agradece If you don’t take advantage of what this country can offer You’ll go back (home) like an ungrateful dog.
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